Political Participation and Empowermentof Women in the Panchayati Raj Institutions: A Selected Case Study of Burdwan District of West Bengal Mr. Rajesh Das Assistant Professor & In – Charge Department of Mass Communication University of Burdwan, West Bengal Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Mob: 91-9051355065 & Ms. DebaratiDhar PhD Scholar Department of Mass Communication University of Burdwan, West Bengal Mail: email@example.com Abstract The present paper attempts to study the concept of democratic decentralization and participation of women in the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs).The state West Bengal has witnessed almost 40 years of long successful achievement in PRIs that is also considered as a Role Model throughout the …show more content…
The high degree of patriarchal society desperately dominates the decision-making processes both in private as well as public domains. Whereas the school of political science describes that Politics means a democratic, participatory, responsible and straight- dealing process. It was also mentioned in the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights, 1966 that politics could form a humane and equitable society. One major therapy prescribed by women empowerment advocates that participation of women in political decision making level could bring a good connection between vibrant and participatory democracy and dignity of women community. Hence, three tier Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), a democratic, participatory rural administration- would be a right alternative to safeguard women’s participation right as well as a platform for practicing their political decision making right. Considering this male hegemony, Indian Parliament also secured 33% seats in the three tier PRIs for women, through its 73rd Amendment in 1992. This historic decision provides the women to share the seat with men, to raise their voice on issues concerning women oppression, suppression and related issues. It basically represents the revolutionary potential to change the face of the grassroots rural India through the Panchayati Raj Institutions. It ensures the participation of women in the local governance. ‘All human beings are born free and equal in
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Additionally, Orissa is a very conservative state, in a very conservative country, and it is generally considered that a female’s place is in the home. In many villages, women will not leave the house except to carry out essential tasks like fetch water or firewood, and even then they will cover their faces entirely with a sari. Women have very limited control over land and other productive assets. This inequality in property rights directly contributes to their low status in the society. These problems are chiefly governed by the lack of social equity, inclusion, gender equity and sustainability. In my community, people below poverty line have to suffer from poor-quality solutions, and every member does not have equal access to same facilities and opportunities. This exclusion
In ten years, we have seen the political potentialities of women voters recognized by farseeing politicians who have rather grudgingly in many instances taken them into the councils of their parties, making them vice-chair of this or that local or state national committee; for the time has not yet arrived when men will voluntarily entrust to women the actual dispensation of party authority or patronage.
Women in government in the 21st century are well under-represented in abounding countries worldwide, in contrast to men. As of October 25, 2013, the global average of women in national assemblies is 21.5%. Greater than 20 countries currently have a woman holding office, and the cooperation rate of women in national-level parliaments is nearly 20%. Countries are exploring what can be done that can increase women's participation in government, from the local to the national.
Democracy will always be imperfect without a clear and close relationship among the advisers and their communities. All the representatives need to evolve their skills and need the right facilities and support to be capable of operating completely and effectively. However, there is as well the necessity to develop and embrace effective materials for engaging with population. Political involvement has been depicted as being spirited and very crucial to democracy in general. In a representative democracy, the fact that the majority of citizens select the law makers for a certain time and have the right to reject them also in a period of time, means that the final power belong to the people but is intermediate through a representative system.
As many would say, men still rule when it comes to the world of politics. Female representation is down and fewer women are running for elective office. Due to the decreasing participation and the gender gap in political ambition, we are becoming farther away from aspiring young women to seek and hold office in our future generations. But women’s underrepresentation is likely to continue in office is likely to extend towards the future unless we all start taking a
Multiple scholars (Jaffrelot, 2003; Varshney, 2000; Banerjee & Somanathan, 2006) write that among the historically disadvantaged social groups in India, those that mobilized themselves politically gained relative to the others. For instance, in the 1980s, the SCs established a successful caste-based party (Bahujan Samaj Party [BSP]), significantly increased their representation in national politics and allowed them to extract more public resources from the state than
Political participation is a right afforded to United States citizens; it is our civic duty to participate and is ultimately a privilege. The founders believed that it was the newly founded government’s responsibility to protect the basic rights of the people. With those beliefs they made the United States of America, a two-tiered, three-branch democracy and therefore the people hold the power to freely elect who they want to represent them in government. The local representatives, we elect push for laws of interest to the majority and provide them with the resources that they need. The president implements and enforces laws that Congress passes. With such social ramifications and power granted to government representatives it would seem as though nearly everyone should be invested in political matters and actively engaged in political participation. Among the easiest ways to get involved politically is through the voting process and elections, others are symbolic participation, civil society participation, protesting, marching, contacting public officials, being part of election campaigns and even running for office. While voting is among the easiest ways to be a part of this democracy, the turnout is low. The right to vote has opened up to a larger number of people through legislation, but still the turnout rate is low. There are factors that show a correlation in the chance of whether or not one will vote, and are very telling in some instances. Voting in the United
Half of the populations of our country are women. So women development is the precondition of national development. There should have equal opportunity and equal rights for women to ensure national development. In our constitution through several articles the equal rights and opportunity of both men and women have been established. It is a harsh reality that it needed 40 long years after its independence to come up with a policy guideline to ensure the rights of its women. The women development policy has created a great scope for the advancement of women empowerment. The national women development policy has ensured women’s rights in formulation and implementation of economic policies.
Recently throughout the United States and other countries, there has been a sudden epiphany that women should be treated just as fairly as men. This is a shocking notion, indeed. How dare women have equal rights; what is this the twenty-first century? Lately, feminists everywhere have been supporting their fellow women and pushing for equality. They have taken to the streets and have marched so their cause can be heard, and even the media has been showing its support for the ladies out there, striving to make things right. Music artists such as Katy Perry, Nicki Minaj, Beyoncé, and Taylor Swift have been supportive of this new wave of feminism, releasing songs that have strong and suggestive lyrics about female independence. Also, the popular online social networks, like Twitter and Instagram, have been depicting celebrities supporting the “Treat boys and girls the same” campaign, which pushes for impartiality for girls and boys, starting from a young age. With all of this mass media attention, it is sure to spark up some reform; and it has. Journalists Rina Chandran and Bibhudatta Pradhan’s article “India 's Women 's Vote Becomes More Independent”, of the Bloomberg Business newspaper, has recently discussed how women in India have begun to defy traditional gender roles and vote in the recent elections. Even though these women have been taught to obey their husbands’ every command, some have decided to defy this conditioning and vote, even against their husbands’ wishes.
In general, the weak representation of women in national legislatures is amazing. After all, with any variants of liberal democracy the right to vote is combined with the right to be elected, so it seems, in many countries, there is something wrong, just the sexual part of the national assemblies, so different from the sex composition of the population as a whole. Reflecting this concern, "Platform for Action" adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women, highlights the theme of women in decision-making bodies as one of the most important (Kumari 2006).
Politics can have a huge influence on the opportunities and advantages that each gender can develop in order to expand their rights. Accessibility to a political party is important for the status of women. For example according to the International
For example, Levy (2007) finds that women make up very insignificant proportions of village leadership, and that once elected, they are often assigned to “women's work” (e.g., family planning projects).2 Remedial efforts such as affirmative action have been considered in order to promote equality, but these have in large part been met with resistance due to what Levy cites as “the generally lower status or women … cultural inhibitions … [and] the deeper issues relating to culture and power in the countryside.”3
In 1965, Dalits constituted only 1.6% of the senior civil servant positions. In 2011, that number has risen to the 11.5% which is not far off the 16% total population of the Dalits. Also a 2009 study showed that 1 Dalit appeared in every 15 fifteen graduates and in 10 secondary students. Therefore there has been an increase in the number by a significant margin. In the political agenda, women acquire a one third of all the seats in the local elected bodies. The Women’s Reservation Bill will see this being applied in the national parliaments as well. All of this implies that some backward classes and tribes have benefited from the reservation
There have been innumerable debates about gender in (Banerjee 2012) Punjab over last 60 years. Most of them were about women’s positions in society, their education, health, economic status, gender equality. What we can conclude from these discussions is that how women have always held a certain contradictory position in our developing country in past years. In recent years women held a very less respectful position . they were not treated as human.On other hand, Punjab has an increased percentage of literacy among women . now women are allowed to enter into professional fields now. However, in the 1950s my grandmother tells women were just made to do household chores. They were not allowed to get higher education or even go out without the permission of parents. They were supposed to be at home . while on the other hand the practices of female foeticide, poor health conditions and lack of education persisting still continue. Even the supportive ideology of the home being women’s real domain and marriage being her ultimate destiny has not changed much in last 60 years.
An ideal society functions according to a system whereby individuals both contribute to and benefit from economic and social developments in society. The well-being of a social group is largely dependent on its economic position in society, which in turn is determined by the group’s financial condition, its educational and employment opportunities, and by the legal rights afforded to it. The group under discussion here, rural women, has been disadvantaged in terms of privilege and opportunities, but has nevertheless contributed considerably to economic growth and social development in India.