In both of his readings, Lijphart argues (or concludes) that presidential system is heavily inclined towards majoritarian democracy, which can impede consolidating democratic regime in those countries that face deep ethnic cleavages. He further argues that parliamentary system and its consensus politics are much preferred to consolidate democracy in ethnically-diversed countries. He presents several compelling evidence to support his argument by describing the essential features of presidentialism and how they account for the majoritarian tendency of the presidential system. In chapter six of his book, Patterns of Democracy, Liphart states that the difference between majority and consensus democracy is the range and depth of people’s participation in the executive branch. He distinguishes presidential system and parliamentary system as the former creates one-party majority cabinet where the power is concentrated in the hands of the majority and the latter produces multiparty coalition where its consensual nature allows broad power sharing within the executive cabinet.
All these features indicate the strong link between presidential democracy and majoritarianism and how they can impede democratic consolidation. First, the fact that the president is elected through majority (or plurality) rule and that the executive power is concentrated to not only one person but also to one party, creating one-party majority cabinet, induce presidential democracy to lean towards