Public Health Issue: Smoking
This essay is aimed to explore, analyse and discuss smoking in adults. Smoking is a public health issue as such is one of the major contributors to high mortality and ill-health in the adults which is preventable (Health and Excellence Care (NICE) (2012). The United Kingdom (UK) is known to have the highest number of people with a history of smoking among people with low socio-economic status (Scriven and Garman, 2006; Goddard and Green, 2005). Smoking is considered a serious epidemic in the UK and the National institute for Health and Excellence Care (NICE, 2012) stated that 28% of adults with low economic status are tobacco smokers compared with 13% of those with economic status or having professional …show more content…
Action on Smoking and Health (ASH, 2007; Richardson (2001) argued that manual groups are likely to smoke heavier than the managerial groups and stated likely reason for this such as food insecurity, substitute for food, social environment, segregation and pressure, lack of good health and lack of confidence. In addition to this, epidemiology statistics reported by Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC, 2013 and Wanless, 2004) stated that smoking is more prevalent among the lower socio-economic groups and known to be key part of the disparities in life expectation between manual and non-manual groups. Therefore it is important something is done to eradicate inequality in the health of the general population.
Smoking was highly prevalent among the men and women in the manual group in Britain in 1946 with 82% which dropped to 55% in the 1970’s and has continued to fall rapidly in the middle 1990’s (ASH, 2007). Furthermore Health and Social Care Information Centre (2013) reported that there has been a drop in the manual groups from 33% in 1998 to 26% in 2010 but this group still smoke more than the social class, in 1998 for instance, non manual group smoked 22% compared to only 15% in 2010 which demonstrates a fall in the non-manual groups and shows there is a fall in their smoking but there is an urgent need to help, promote and support the
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Tobacco has and still is the most important public health issue faced in Australia and internationally. (Jochelson, 2006). Many countries such as North America, England, Australia, Canada and Ireland have introduced policies regarding smoking in public areas and restriction of smoking in indoor areas. (Thomson, Wilson & Edwards, 2009). The government, community leaders and policy makers work towards introducing policies that will stop consumers from smoking in public areas. (Pizacani, maher, Rohde, Drach & Stark, 2012). Government intervention should extend public smoking bans so that second hand smokers can be safe, a better environment and less death incidents relating to smoking.
According to “The Action of Smoking and Health,” every six seconds someone loses their life as a result of a tobacco related disease. It’s hard to realize how damaging cigarette smoking’s effect can be until you experience it first hand. It is almost certain that every one knows someone who is currently a smoker or was a smoker at some point in their life. For years smoking was the seen as the “cool” thing to do, it was how to “fit in.” There was no real emphasis placed on the dangers of this particular habit, and as a result, it became a world wide trend. In the past, technology and medicine were not nearly advanced enough to be able to determine just how harmful tobacco usage is. However, as we have made medical and
In the United States, smoking cigarettes is the number one preventable cause of morbidity and death (Bergen, 1999), and accounts for $300 Billion in health care costs and economic productivity loss (Jamal, 2015). While the national smoking rate is 16.8% (CDC, 2016), specific demographics are more susceptible to developing smoking habits: people who live below the poverty line (10.9% higher), disabled or with a limitation (6.2% higher), and males (4.7% higher) (Agaku, 2014).
This essay aims to address the issues associated with smoking, its impact on the public health and how this can be tackled through health promotion, therefore the role of the nurse will be explored in respect of the nursing contribution, especially primary care in community settings. The current national and international policies will be considered as a recognition of its impact to the public health, conjointly how these can support the nurse in delivering the health promotion. Finally, the implications for future for Public Health will be considered.
Smoking is recognised as the largest single preventable cause of death and disease in Australia. It is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer, emphysema, bronchitis, asthma, renal disease and eye disease. Tobacco contains the powerfully addictive stimulant nicotine, which can make smoking a regular and long-term habit that is not easy to quit (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2014). Statistics show
“Smoking rates have halved in Australians over the past 30 years, falling below 16%. Except for in Indigenous populations, smoking rates have remained at more than twice this level, with even higher rates reported in remote communities” (RACGP, 2013) The inequality that has been faced by Indigenous people is still at an unacceptable level, and has “been identified as a human rights concern by the United Nations” (Dick, 2007). Smoking is a major issue because, “it is the most preventable contributor to the gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples” (Ivers, 2011). “Smoking contributes to 17% of the life expectancy gap” (Australian Government: Department for Health and Welfare, 2011). The socio-economic disadvantage faced by Indigenous people leads to the addiction of tobacco, which can be caused by many factors including; their position on the social gradient, education, social exclusion, their employment status and their social support. There is a lack of developed personal skills on the health risks of tobacco, “some Aboriginals don’t identify smoking as a health issue” (Korff, 2014), due to the history of Aboriginal people around smoking. As well as first hand smoke, passive smoking also contributes to poor health, especially for children. Smoking is the major cause for heart disease, stroke, some cancers, lung diseases and a variety of other conditions (HealthInfoNet.ecu.edu.au, 2013). “If we could reduce tobacco consumption levels
This study examined the health inequalities among different socio-economic groups from 2004 to 2014 among Australians whose age ranging from 20 to 65 years old. According to the study, the health risk factor behaviour; smoking by sex results indicated that males smoking were higher than females during the study period. The highest rate of smoking were reported among males in 2004. Smoking status by education groups suggested that the highest rate of smoking were accounted in year 12 or below group in all three years, while university degree holders accounted for the least group. The different income groups showed that the poorest people smoking percentage were higher compared to the richest and the percentage had increased when it was moving
Next the columnist begins a strongly worded evidenced-based approach by discussing the declining percentage of regular smokers. The Editorial begins to bring in numerous sources of evidence such as Anti-Cancer Council data and the survey results of Victorians from 1998 to 2006. This use of scientific statistics shows the reader that The Editorial offers an expertise point of view into the issue and has genuine factual evidence to back up their arguments. This would reassure the reader
Researching the issue of smoking and tobacco addiction in Russia has allowed me to learn more about the history and culture of the country, and increase my understanding about the effects of smoking in Russian-speaking communities. Although no one in my close family smokes, I was surrounded by smokers when growing up and the issue of smoking remained unaddressed until I moved to Australia, where there are many anti-smoking campaigns and education about the effect of drugs on the mind and body. After researching the topic, I realised that my knowledge and understanding about this issue had been very minor before conducting this investigation.
Smoking is a particularly common and intractable addictive disorder and is the leading preventable cause of many preventable chronic illnesses and death, responsible for approximately six million annual mortalities Yet, despite the well documented consequences of smoking, despite the unequivocal benefits of quitting and despite facts such as that approximately 17,000 people die each day in the world from smoking prematurely, over a billion people around the world still continue to smoke people continue to engage in this health risk behaviour(www.who.int). This leads us to question what motivates an individual to smoke, and not to smoke.
In the U.S., only 20% of those at or above the poverty level smoke, compared with 30% of those below the poverty level (Hiscock, Bauld, Fidler, and Munafo, 2012). Teenage girls of families with lower SES are more likely to smoke (Hiscock et al, 2012). In addition, those with low SES are less likely to quit smoking successfully and may be less likely to intend or attempt to quit (Reid, Hammond, Boudreau, Fong, and Siahpush, 2010). Reid and coauthors surveyed over16,000 smokers in the US, UK, Canada and the United Kingdom and found that those with higher education were more likely to say they intend to quit smoking, attempt to quit and to be abstinent for between one and six months. Higher income was also associated with stated intention to quit and abstinence of at least one month (Reid et al, 2010). In addition, those with low SES
The table that was chosen from Health United States, 2014 report, was on the following determinant of health: “Current cigarette smoking among adults age 18 and over, by sex (female), race and age; United States, selected years 1965-2013”; this table (below) was listed as table 52 on the report, found on page 182. Using the data from the selected table, a specific health problem that should be the focus of one research subject in public health is cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is a specific health problem because the table, shows the trend of cigarette smoking (with some variation), on the decline for all categories for females (race and age) as years progress. The problem of cigarette smoking still needs to be addressed
In each year between 1998 and 2002, over 106,000 deaths in the UK, around a sixth of the total, were from smoking-related causes and smoking was the direct cause of about three in five of all cancers (Westlake, Yar, 2006:
For a country in our financial position the general health of Scotland is very poor. In some areas the average life expectancy is as low as 54 years old for men. A major cause of this is smoking. With the young in particular smoking is much more popular than it used to be. In October 2008, it was estimated that one third of 16-24 year olds smoke. This figure is at a 10 year high. In between the ages of 16-19 it is found that girls are more likely to smoke than boys.