Questions On Reading And Speaking Skills

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1.3. Language aims
According to Gattullo and Pallotti (2000, p. 52), when children finish primary school, they can:
1. read and understand a simple passage on everyday life;
2. engage in a simple conversations;
3. listen and understand simple messages.

In this useful investigation into language aims, Gattullo and Pallotti (2000) show that students will have developed reading, listening and speaking skills for simple topics when they leave primary school. These objectives seem to be reasonable and in line with the ability of six to ten year old pupils.
With regard to speaking skill, in ELLiE study, Italian pupils are expected to reach A1+ in CERF level by 11 years old at which they are able to exchange personal information about familiar
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The above author found that four skills of a foreign language are assessed, which also reveals the ability to use lexical items, grammar and pronunciation of a user. However, one of the limitations with this evaluation is that it does not explain how language competences are assessed. There is no answer whether students will take a pencil and paper test or other forms of assessment.
The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) developed by the European Council of Europe (2001) is used for assessment in Italy. Mitchell (2010) claims that the CEFR is employed to set up level for school leavers: primary students achieving level A1, lower secondary school pupils achieve A2 and high school leavers achieving level B1 (in vocational institutes) or B2 (in academic institutes). The CEFR is an outstanding framework for language teaching and assessment because learning outcomes statements (known as “can do” statements) are indicated clearly and fully for all skills: “it describes in a comprehensive way what language learners have to learn to do in order to use a language for communication and what knowledge and skills they have to develop so as to be able to act effectively” (Council of Europe, 2001, cited in Richards & Rodgers, 2014, p.165).

1.5. Teaching materials
Enever (2011) points out that teachers have difficulty in conducting effective lessons due to the
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