From the civil war era to 1900, strong barriers were created between different racial ethnicities. The racial barriers against various ethnic groups cast limitations on their full rights and citizenships. Typically, racial barriers were created for more than one factor. What eventually led to the creation of racial barriers against working-class African American and Asian was not simply racism but the combinations of racism with other social, political and economic factors. One of the most crucial factors that had contributed to racial barriers was definitely the racism among working class African Americans. The racism is best shown in the Plessy V. Ferguson case established in 1896.[ 100 milestone documents, “U.S. Supreme Court Plessy V. Ferguson,” National Archives, http://www.ourdocuments.gov/. ] This petition was originally filed by Homer Plessy to the supreme court of state against John H. Ferguson, the judge of the criminal district court for the parish of New Orleans. Plessy was a legal citizen of Louisiana, of mixed descent with a proportion of seventh-eighths Caucasian and one-eighth African blood. With this being said, Plessy was still considered as an African race. On June 7, 1892, he paid for the first class passage on the East Louisiana Railway and took a seat that was designated for white people upon entering the passenger train. Due to Plessy’s refusal to take another seat, he was imprisoned in the parish jail of New Orleans. He was fined for violating
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
In June 1892 Homer A. Plessy bought a first-class ticket on the East Louisiana Railroad and sat in the car designated for whites only. Plessy was of mixed African and European ancestry, and he looked white. Because the Citizens Committee wanted to challenge the segregation law in court, it alerted railroad officials that Plessy would be sitting in the whites only car, even though he was partly of African descent. Plessy was arrested and brought to court for arraignment before Judge John H. Ferguson of the U.S. District Court in Louisiana. Plessy then attempted to halt the trial by suing Ferguson on the grounds that the segregation law was unconstitutional.
American History X is clearly a film dealing with racism. The interesting thing about this film is the way in which the subject is treated. First of all, it is obvious that, though racism is always a difficult subject to deal with, American History X presents it without any reservations or dumming down. Second, the film's figurehead for racism, Derek Vinyard (Edward Norton), is not an unintelligent redneck racist as films often portray them, but is in fact well-spoken, charismatic and intelligent, although he clearly holds ideals that are terribly wrong. Finally, the film shows that it is not just the white, neo-nazi racists who are fools to be involved in this, but all racism is foolish. Through these methods, the film shows the viewer,
African Americans were never treated the same as other Americans. One day a black man who looked white named Homer Plessy got sick of sitting in a Jim Crow car so he decided to purchase a first class ticket in the white’s only section on the train. Plessy told the conductor that he was 1/8 black and he refused to move from the car. Removed from the train Plessy was in jail overnight and was released on a 500 dollar bond. Homer Plessy protested that his 13th and his 14th amendments rights were violated. This case became known as Plessy v. Ferguson. This case upheld the constitutionality of segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine.
In 1896 the United States Supreme Court ruled that it was constitutionally legal to segregate African Americans with their white counterparts. In the court case of Plessy v. Ferguson an African American man in Louisiana named Homer Plessy refused to follow the mandated Jim Crow laws which enforced that African Americans have to sit in a designated area when riding on a train. Plessy argued that his fourteenth amendment right was violated equal-protection clause, which “prohibits the states from denying “equal protection of the laws” to any person within their jurisdictions”(Duignan, 2016). However, when Plessy’s case moved to the Supreme Court they ruled“ the object of the Fourteenth Amendment was to create "absolute equality of the two races before the law," such equality extended only so far as political and civil rights (e.g., voting and serving on juries), not "social rights" (e.g., sitting in a railway car one chooses) (McBride, n.d. ). As a result, Plessy v. Ferguson
On June 7, 1892, Homer Plessy, a thirty year-old shoemaker bought a first class ticket preparing to travel from New Orleans to Covington, Louisiana. Homer Plessy was something called a “Creole of Color” a phrase used to describe black people in New Orleans that trace their ancestry to the French, the Spanish and the Caribbean settlers. He had a very light colored skin tone and was only one eighth black. Even so, he was required by law to sit in the black section of the train. He boarded the train and sat in the “white” car. (Wormser) The conductor questioned him, and after refusing to move he was arrested and charged with not following state law. He went first to the Criminal District Court for the Parish of Orleans, and Tourgee, the hired lawyer, brought his case that the “separate but equal” rules were unconstitutional. Judge John H. Ferguson ruled against him, but that did not stop Homer Plessy. Instead, he applied to the State Supreme Court for the ability to go on to the United States Supreme Court. (Wormser)
In 1892 the Supreme Court ruled 7-1 against Homer Plessy, a one-eighth black man who fought to sit in a train car reserved for white people in Louisiana 1. Since he was not allowed to ride in said cars, his 14th amendment right against discrimination of any American citizen was violated 1. The Supreme Court rejected Plessy's argument that Louisiana law conflicted with the thirteenth amendment and the fourteenth amendment 1. The justices claimed however, that separation of races does not make someone feel
The history of the United States in regard to racism and discrimination is no secret. Children are taught about segregation, slavery, and the Civil Rights Movement like the events were purely in the past. In part the events were in the past; however, the results of said events are not. As Americans, we live in a nation with a rough history and, in order to keep growing together, we cannot forget what has happened. Granted, racism is not extinct, but it is most definitely not the norm it was 50 years ago. Many people are not aware of how much racism still exists in our schools, workforces, and anywhere else where social lives are occurring. According to Derrick Bell’s book, Faces at the Bottom of the Well, Bell uses fiction stories to show that racism still exist but has a different form. In American society, racism is still evident today in racial symbols, covert racism and affirmative action.
The next critical Supreme Court ruling on the issue of civil rights was in 1892 with the Plessy v. Ferguson case. Homer Adolph Plessy was a shoemaker from the state of Louisiana. Although Plessy was seven eighths white and only one eighth black. According to the law in Louisiana, he was still required to use the facilities designated as "colored". In an attempt to challenge the law, Plessy, with the support of civil rights activists, bought a ticket for the first class coach on the East Louisiana Rail Road. Plessy boarded and sat down in the first class coach. Just after the train departed the station the conductor confronted Plessy. The conductor asked him if he was black, Plessy told him he was and that he refused to leave the coach. The train was stopped; Plessy was arrested and formally charged at the fifth street police station.
In 1890, the Supreme Court passed a Louisiana law that stated that all passenger railways provided separated cars for blacks and whites. They separated whites and blacks and punish passengers or employees for violating this law. On June 7, 1892 Homer Plessy took a vacant seat in a white only car on his trip between New Orleans and Los Angeles. Plessy was arrested because he was mixed, but was preferred as black and was put to trial for violating a law that was passed by the Supreme Court in 1890. Plessy felt that the Supreme Court was treating blacks unequal, so he filed an authority against the judge, Hon John H. Ferguson.
The Plessy versus Ferguson case started with an incident where an African American passenger on a train, Homer Plessy, broke Louisiana law by refusing to sit in a Jim Crow car, a separate cart on the train where African Americans had to sit. This
In 1892, Homer Plessy was a passenger in a railroad and who refused to sit in a Jim Crow car. He brought before Judge John H. Ferguson of the Criminal Court from New Orleans, who upheld the state law. The law was challenged in the Supreme Court on grounds that it conflicted with the 13th and 14th Amendments. Although, the Supreme Court had ruled in 1896, Plessy v Ferguson inculcated the “separate but equal” doctrine and passed laws entailing the segregation of races, arguing that Jim Crow laws were constitutional. The case was devastating for African Americans allowing the oppression of an entire race. The Supreme Court system in practice was separate and unequal;
After being arrested in the United States, African Americans are 52% more likely to be detained than whites while facing a felony trial. For decades, Americans were being judgmental towards each other based on the complexion of another person’s skin. It is now 2015, and racism is still a big factor in our country. So, why does racism still exist after all these year? Racism will always be the thorn in our sides that keeps our country from truly accepting our differences and our opinions or lifestyles. African Americans are the most targeted racial group when it comes to racism in America because defiance and hatred for black people is an essential part of Euro/Americanized culture. As the young African American is leaning down to drink water, there’s another fountain to his left. These fountains can be exemplified as how black and whites were separated from having equality and the same rights. The one that looks better and splendid, is used for whites. While the fountain that African Americans drink from, looks older and less appealing. Even though the water may have tasted the same, the quality of what black people had possessed wasn’t the same as whites, and that had an effect on society. It made our society discriminate ones race with no purpose or reasoning. According to the CNN.com, cultural discrimination results from social stereotyping and leads to poor communication and interpersonal relationships. Because of racism, humans will always have a judgement like
Racism seems to be a cultural crutch that stems from the hatred and backwash of American history, leading us to believe we can still turn a blind eye to how it affects our daily lives in a major way today. But what if we were colorblind? Would this change the way we see ourselves? Whether we know it or not racism and the concept of race itself affects everybody daily. It affects us as a country, as a person, politically, and socially. As Coates makes it very clear that race on its own causes racism, not the other way around causes one to think that things could possibly be a little different. “Americans believe in the reality of ‘race’ as a defined, indubitable feature of the natural world. Racism—the need to ascribe bone-deep features to people
It is remorseful that the wonderful country called the United States is facing such a grave problem. It is evident that citizens of different races- the Caucasians, the African Americans, the Hispanics- cannot live together in harmony. In fact, it has been evident for years. This can be confirmed by the excessive number of racist stories on the news, in the papers, and on the streets. I believe all can agree that the way that various races interact with one another is sorrowful.
The population of the United States of America has been one of mixed race since its very beginning. Boatload upon boatload of enslaved Africans provided a labor force which would fuel the American South’s economy for many years, until national abolition and the subsequent civil rights movement created a primarily biracial population of blacks and whites. The US has come a long way since those days, and today every child born into the US is taught from an early age the evils of racism and the shameful actions committed by slave-owning US citizens in the past. From textbooks to televisions, the modern USA seemingly works tirelessly to teach its population that discrimination by race is wrong and that all races are equal. This has led to a great national complacence among whites, and a widespread belief that the US has mostly eradicated racial prejudices. But it is not so, and despite a population almost entirely composed of people who would not consider themselves racists, racism still pervades in the US. In many cases modern racism occurs at the hands of whites who almost absolutely are completely unaware of their discriminatory actions. In the films “Frozen River” and “The Visitor” racism was touched on repeatedly and played an evident part in the messages they were trying to portray.