In 1992 the Canadian Federal Minster of Fisheries and Oceans, John Crosbie, declared a moratorium on the Northern Cod Fishery. This momentous event had resulted in 40,000 job losses in 5 different Canadian provinces and had required a relief package worth several billion dollars which had been dispersed to the local coastal communities. Since then many economists have been providing various explanations and theories as to what has caused this huge collapse. One theory which can be associated and quite possible provide an explanation to this is Rational Choice Theory.
Rational Choice Theory is a belief that states that individuals always make logical and rational decisions. These decisions provide people with the greatest benefit and are made in individuals own self-interest. It also assumes that all individuals try to actively maximize their gain in any situation and therefore consistently aim to reduce their losses. This theory is based on the idea that all humans base their decisions on rational calculations, act with rationality when choosing and aim to increase either pleasure or profit. According to CanadianHistory “Many other countries, such as France, Spain and Portugal, joined in the fishing banks for the summer seasons and established summer bases to salt and process the fish”. This is clearly evident that the fishermen at the time were aiming to maximise their fish catch in order to pursue their own self-interest. Although this may provide a short term gain for the
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A clear connection can be made regarding valuing other where the killing of the grey seals can be seen as having a non-instrumental value because the harm is done directly to the seals. While cod have an instrumental value “use value” because the decline in the cod stocks directly affect fishermen/fisherwomen. Also, the concept of flourishing apply to the wellbeing of marine life and the marine ecosystem. As Pannozzo argues that the wilderness area intended to all provide a refuge to all biodiversity species and not only protect the species that favoured by humans. The government failure to protect grey seals and marine ecosystem is a clear evidence of
When it comes down to it, we all make our own decisions. We weigh the pros and cons to decide if the benefits outweigh the potential punishments. The idea of rational choice theory is that people choose their actions based on the options available and choose the one they most prefer. If their choice is to eat a donut or to not, when they really want to eat it, chances are they will eat it. Once you add in punishment, it gets more complicated. If the person were to be punished for eating it, they will most likely think it through more. Say, it’s a teenager who wants to eat the donut but he knows his father will ground him if he does. This donut is the teen’s favorite kind and he really really wants to eat the donut, but the risk of punishment is there, the teen will weigh the consequences against the benefits. Would he choose a few minutes of a tasty donut and risk being grounded for a week or would he choose to forgo the donut and not get in trouble? The act of having a choice to do something you want to do that also has consequences and causes you to rationally decide if it’s worth it or not is rational choice theory.
Iconic Cape Cod Massachusetts is named after the Atlantic Cod. For centuries, this fish has provided food and trade for New Englanders. In this time, there have been several instances of overfishing by humans from the aboriginal era to colonial times but none so drastic as the present conditions of cod fisheries (Jackson, Kirby, Berger, and Bjorndal, 2001). Overfishing is a human induced occurrence where humans are fishing more than a body of water can sustain. In other words, humans are catching more adult fish preventing the existing population from growing to replenish the fish that were caught (Overfishing: A Global Disaster, n.d.). Worldwide, over 80% of the fish stocks are “fully- to over-exploited, depleted, or in a state of collapse” (Overfishing: A Global Disaster, n.d.). The results of this careless behavior has reduced the biodiversity in the Gulf of Maine and landed the Atlantic Cod on the endangered species list as being “vulnerable” (Cod, n.d.). In the neighboring region of Newfoundland, Canada, communities are already feeling the effects of overfishing. In 1992, at the beginning of the fishing season in the Grand Bank region, there were suddenly no more cod. The local economies collapsed and to this day, the region has not quite recovered (Brennan and Withgott, 2005).
During this project, my class and I learned many examples of choices and consequences made by people throughout every day life. One specific character in the book, Erik Fisher, made choices that not only affected himself, but everyone around him negatively. Fortunately enough, as bad as these choices were; they did cause a few good outcomes.
My example of the rational choice theory of today is the mexican drug controls of December 2011. The drug trafficking organization in Mexico was highly rational, self-interested actors seeked to maximize profit.
This paper will cover two criminological theories and they will be applied to two types of criminality. The two theories chosen for the paper were developmental theory and rational choice theory. The two types of crimes that were chosen were organized crime, specifically focusing on gangs, and terrorism. Then the crimes will be compared and contrasted. Finally, the developmental theory will be applied to organized crime to explain why and how it happens. The rational choice theory will be applied to terrorism to explain what compels individuals to attempt this form of criminality.
The film speaks about how the local livelihoods are connected with the sea and how they have made a revolutionary return to traditional hand line fishing to drive up the fish market price with the 20-year moratorium that had been placed on cod due to overfishing with industrial fishing practices for the previous 50 years. Based on research by people such as Leonard Milich, he too writes about the collapse of the Northwest Atlantic cod fishery as shown in the film (Milich 2010). This research also talks about the strategies that were put in place for the management of fisheries for the locals who depend on the healthy stocks as well as the market values of the fish (Milich
The Canadian Government has been faced with a decision that could destroy an already delicate relationship with the Indigenous Canadians. There have been several pipeline expansion proposals to increase the production and extraction of oil throughout Canada and the U.S. The primary factor delaying the Canadian Government from starting these projects is the Indigenous people. With promises by the newly elected federal Liberal government and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, it has outlined the importance of the Indigenous peoples’ rights when it comes to natural resource extraction that affects their land.
Commercial fisheries can do tremendous damage to the marine ecosystem if they are not managed properly. This became apparent in Newfoundland and Labrador during the 1990s, when decades of overfishing caused the northern cod stocks to collapse and resulted in a moratorium on the centuries-old industry. These were huge ecological and economic losses, which dictated an urgent need to change fisheries policy and practice in a way that would make the industry sustainable and protect marine biodiversity.
Scenario: In the community of Campbell River, British Columbia (the salmon capital of the world), concerns have been raised with regards to the issue of overfishing. Some members of the community do not believe the fishing industry should continue; however, they might not fully understand the political/economic/environmental implications of this decision upon others in the community. As a result, the mayor of Campbell River has decided to hold a town hall to listen to the various viewpoints of those affected by the fishing industry. They have invited the BC Supreme Court to hold a ruling to decide whether or not salmon fishing will continue among the coastal provinces.
The American Persona is basically the average person or personality of America; what they say, think, and how they act. Rational choice theory is an assumption that people always make prudent and logical decisions that usually benefit or satisfy them to their own personal interest. In my opinion, being American is eating a lot and gaining weight. It is also having freedom of speech, of religion, of expression, etc. and having rights to bare arms, equal justice, etc. But do we really?
Rational choice theory accepts that all individuals attempt to effectively expand their preference in any circumstance and in this way reliably attempt to minimize their misfortunes. The hypothesis depends on the possibility that all people construct their choices in light of sound figuring’s, act with discernment when picking, and intend to increment either delight or benefit. Rational choice theory likewise stipulates that all unpredictable social wonders are driven by individual human activities. Accordingly, if a business analyst needs to clarify social change or the activities of social organizations, he needs to take a look at the balanced choices of the people that make up the entirety.
Rational choice theory, also known simply as choice theory, is the assessment of a potential offender to commit a crime. Choice theory is the belief that committing a crime is a rational decision, based on cost benefit analysis. The would-be offender will weigh the costs of committing a particular crime: fines, jail time, and imprisonment versus the benefits: money, status, heightened adrenaline. Depending on which factors out-weigh the other, a criminal will decide to commit or forgo committing a crime. This decision making process makes committing a crime a rational choice. This theory can be used to explain why an offender will decide to commit burglary, robbery, aggravated assault, or murder.
The Oceaneos Research Foundation stated that in the mid-1990 the Atlantic cod was caught to near extinction. “Newfoundland’s fishing industry collapsed due to overfishing and 40,000 jobs were lost and the ecosystem destroyed. Fifteen years after the loss of the cod industry they are still waiting for a recovery.” (“The Oceaneos Marine Research Foundation”, 2017)
First I will provide an overview of what rational choice theory is and why it has staked such a prominent position in the discipline of political science. In this section I conclude that rational choice theory has indeed developed advanced methodologies at telling us how rational agents should behave. Then in my second section I will show, using the empirical case of the free-rider problem and collective action, as well as the case of suicide terrorism, that rational choice theory cannot adequately account for actual political phenomena. In my third section I will provide some reasons for why this is the case. Finally, in my concluding section I will posit a theoretical framework incorporating some refinements to the assumptions behind rational choice theory that would better aid a predictive (but not universalist) political science.