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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation Essay

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REDD+ leads to increase in both carbon storage and forest conservation. REDD+ mitigation measure includes REDD, plus conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forest, and enhancement of forest carbon stock.
REDD+ with carbon enhancement objective may increase conversion of bio-diverse natural ecosystem to monoculture with quick species growth. In addition, increase in afforestation and reforestation will be common by replacing high biodiversity non-forest ecosystem (Swan and McNelly, 2011).
Conservation of forest in REDD+ area can lead to displacement (leakage) of deforestation and degradation to other non-REDD+ site. For example, in Indonesia, targeting carbon dense peat land forest will increase pressure to
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The restriction to the local people for the use of forest products and timber logging can increase the demand for these products and market value. The control of the deforestation and degradation in REDD+ site increases the agricultural land crisis and demand for the land. Studies indicate that cross-border leakage is a major problem in many areas. In Vietnam between 1987 and 2006, about 39% of the forest cover was recovered, which was balanced by the forest loss in the neighboring countries including Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Indonesia (Barlow, et. al., 2012). The conservation or restoration project in the REDD+ areas without considering the immediate or underlying causes of forest loss can be more prone to leakage (Miles and Dickson, 2010) causing deforestation elsewhere to meet the demand for agricultural products and forest needs (Barlow, et. al., 2012).
In the current management system in Nepal, community forestry (CF) is one of the effective mechanisms to reduce deforestation and increase greenery in the country, but there is uncertainty to what extent CF supports biodiversity conservation (Acharya, 2003). Community forestry has contributed to improving and diversifying livelihoods by mobilizing locally available natural forest. As per the Forest Act (1993), community forest user groups (CFUGs) retain 100% of revenues generated and 25% are used in forest development
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