Rousseau, Thoreau, And Marx

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Rousseau, Thoreau, and Marx discuss man’s alienation from nature and his/her

natural conscience, which is sublated by material consciousnesses that are symbolic of:

luxury, liberty, and capital. The alienating effects in the transition from feudalism to the

modern state are grounded within: the luxury of “commerce and money” (Rousseau, “Science

and Arts,” 16); onto a false sense of liberty in “commerce and agriculture” (Thoreau, “Civil

Disobedience,” 228); then towards capital in “commerce” and “industry” (Marx,

“Manifesto,” 210). Man, therein, reframes his/her image under the forces of production which

reconstitutes their personal worth. S/he is estranged from their intrinsic life-process by the

alienating practices of conditioning ideologies under hegemonic control. Wherein Rousseau,

Thoreau, and Marx criticised the ideologies of power (iconography, patriotism, capitalism)

and brought to the forefront the question of freedom and necessity. Whereby luxury had been

misread as liberty, and freedom was seen in the industry of capital. In juxtaposition Zinn,

Noble, and Saul discuss man’s alienation from his fellow (wo)men and his/her natural

fraternity, which is separated by ideal consciousnesses influenced by semantics of:

ideology, policy, and technology. The self-alienating effects in the transition from

industrialisation to modernisation are established within: the ideologies of “political rhetoric”

(Zinn, “Scholarship,” 507); the

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