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Sample Undergraduate Psychology Essay

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SAMPLE UNDERGRADUATE PSYCHOLOGY ESSAY
NB This is not a perfect essay. It was graded at 60% (A 2.1) and the bibliography is missing!
Drawing on Freudian and Attachment Theories assess the Relationship between early year's experiences and criminality.
Psychological theories have attempted to explain the reasons for and how criminality occurs. The psychoanalytic perspective involves two major theories - Freud's theory of the Sexual Stages of Development and the Theory of Attachment purposed by Bowlby (1947). These theories conclude that there is an association between the formation of personality in childhood and that of future criminal behaviour. The Freudian theory of development suggests that we go through several stages of development
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In addition, the majority of boys interviewed (93%) came from homes where there was lax parental supervision and they were allowed to make their own decisions. Therefore, these findings suggest that the attachment or bond between a child and their main care giver is important in the formation of personality and the development of their moral beliefs.
This research also identifies how the parental use of punishment may be a cause of delinquency and anti-social and criminal behaviour. However, later research was to show this conclusion to be incorrect (e.g. Schuck, 1974). Later studies have infact indicated that parental permissiveness was a cause of juvenile delinquency and aggression (Lipton, Martinson, and Wilks, 1975). This latter point is a criticism of the Freudian approach to parenting skills. Freudian theorists argue that parents should be permissive and allow children to work their way through problem situations without the parent causing internal trauma in the child by being too strict in their expectations with their child. The Freudian theory believes that healthy development will be encouraged through a warm parent-child bond, whereby the child is helped through interactive talk to uncover and reveal the unconscious conflicts that are inhibiting the child's progression. Therefore, Freudian theory suggests that anti-social or criminal behaviour is heavily influenced by early year's experiences and the child's ability to progress through the sexual
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