Sex Abuse And Substance Abuse

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1.0 Background
World Prison Population List published that about 11 million people were held as detention, remand and sentenced prisoner in 2011; United States had the highest prisoner population rate worldwide with 743 per 100,000 of the national population (Walmsley, 2011). Majority of prisoners from poor minority communities are experienced chronic diseases, drug abuse and mental illness. In U.S., 65% prisoners achieved the medical criteria for substance abuse and addiction (Columbia Univ., New York, &NY. Centre on Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2010); in Australia, 54% prisoners reported drinking alcohol at unsafe level before imprisonment, and more than 60% of prisoners used illicit drugs during the previous 12 months (Victorian Auditor-General’s Office [VAGO], 2013). In terms of the data above, more than half the prisoners have drug use and dependence behaviour. Due to the illegality of drug market and high expense, substance use suffering inmates are four times more likely to involve in illegal activities to gain more money (Columbia Univ., New York, &NY. Centre on Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2010), which contribute the incredible number of substance abuse prisoners.

Additionally, in terms of Victorian Auditor-General’s Report in 2013, 44% of prisoners have injected drugs; therefore, the blood-borne diseases are considerable among these population, such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Furthermore, due to the unsafe engagement of needles and syringes they are more
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