Soaps and Detergents By: Nicole Renzi Chemistry 102 Laboratory Section 24, Project 17 final lab report Instructor: Fan Yang February 27th 2012

2910 Words Mar 28th, 2013 12 Pages
SOAPS AND DETERGENTS

_DISCUSSION_

The goal of this project was to make, and test four soaps, and two detergents. The purpose of making four different soaps and two detergents was needed in order to decide which one would be best for the environmental group to use in the future that would allow for the safest cleanup of an oil spill while not harming the animals or the environment in the process. It was necessary to test the impact of the four soaps and two detergents by analyzing their different properties based off of their specific characteristics and the wastewater left over from the vacuum filtration procedure. This procedure had to be undertaken in order to confirm which of the soaps and detergents synthesized is most
…show more content…
The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water. The fats and oils used in soap-making come from animal or plant sources. The four basic soaps used in this procedure were made using olive oil, vegetable oil, vegetable shortening, and lard. Each fat or oil is made up of a distinctive mixture of several different triglycerides. In a triglyceride molecule, three fatty acid molecules are attached to one molecule of glycerin. There are many types of triglycerides; each type consists of its own particular combination of fatty acids. They are weak acids composed of two parts: A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen (H) atom, two oxygen (O) atoms, and one carbon (C) atom, plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. Generally, it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon (C) atoms each carrying two hydrogen (H) atoms. The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. It is called the hydrophilic end; this end of the fatty acid chain prefers water. The hydrocarbon chain is attracted to oil and grease and is the hydrophobic end. However, when soap is presented to hard water which is water containing minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, and seldom minerals like iron. Soap produces what is known as soap scum, or residue from the

More about Soaps and Detergents By: Nicole Renzi Chemistry 102 Laboratory Section 24, Project 17 final lab report Instructor: Fan Yang February 27th 2012