Socioeconomic Factors, Self-Moticy And Academic Achievement And Attainment

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Historical Background
Over the course of the last 10 years, cultural and socioeconomic factors, cultural and social capital, self-efficacy, and self-handicapping have been studied as contributors to academic achievement and attainment. Cultural status refers to the customs, values, and traditions whereas socioeconomic status refers to the social and economic factors influencing attitude, character, lifestyle, and decisions. It is important to study how cultural and socioeconomic status influence cultural and social capital defined by Bourdieu 1986 as the factors such as education, eloquence, appearance among others that influence social mobility and the total resources possessed by an individual respectively. Also, during the last decade Bandura’s 1977 theory of self-efficacy has been studied at various dimensions with studies upholding the definition of self-efficacy as an individual’s belief in their ability to engage in a particular behavior most often tied to an expectation or goal. Similarly, Jones & Berglas 1978 self-handicapping theory has been studied from perspectives beyond the scope of the field of education. Self-handicapping is defined by Jones & Berglas (1978-SOURCE) as the search for obstacles known to likely decrease performance or success. Because the NCLB Act of 2001 expects all students to successfully learn the curriculum, regardless of cultural or socioeconomic status, ethnicity, or gender it is important to study how these relate to academic
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