A. Describe the stages of sleep. Identify the major sleep disorders. Using an electroencephalogram, researchers noted four distinct stages of NREM sleep and one stage of REM sleep. As we sleep, we cycle through these stages like a circuit at the gym; spending more time on some machines and less time on others. We spend as much as ninety minutes in NREM stages and as little as ten minutes in REM per circuit. The stages of NREM sleep can be identified by their characteristic wavelengths, based on brain activity, as seen on the EEG. We use the cycles per second (cps) to categorize the stages. In stage 1, the lightest of sleep stages, we see a wave of 3-7 cps, which is down from the 'drowsy' measurement of 8-12 cps. As we fall deeper into …show more content…
Somnambulism, or sleepwalking, can be dangerous due to the fact that the person is wandering about without any conscious awareness. B. Describe the way language is acquired. To describe the way language is acquired, we're going to talk about how we perceive words and speech, how we learn the meaning of different words, and how we learn to use grammar properly. As children, we immediately start our life by hearing the world around us and it's up to our brain to figure out what all the sound means. Research suggests that we are biologically ready to separate sound contrasts that are important for the language spoken around us. We also get help from those around us in the form of infant-directed speech, commonly called baby-talk. We get our information via speech that has been slowed and simplified, and often in a higher pitch, that helps us grasp these new words. We, as children, are amazing new word learners. Like little sponges, absorbing every new word even if we don't immediately get the proper meaning. We hear a new word and guess what that word might mean based on our surroundings. For example, everything in your living room has a name. Now, imagine that someone you trusted very much came in and commented on how lovely your inglenook was. You would have trouble immediately knowing what this person was talking about, but you would make a hypothesis. You would look at where
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Nature and nurture both play a significant role in language development. Language development refers to how children understand, organise, speak and use words in order to communicate at an effective, age-appropriate level (Karen Kearns, 2013, P.105). For centuries, theorists have been debating the roles of nature versus nurture. Although, each child’s language will develop at their own pace and there will be many individual differences based on culture, ethnicity, health and ability. As well as physical, social, emotional and cognitive development in which will contribute to a child’s language development.
Then you will move into stage two which includes sleep spindles and K complexes. Sleep spindles are very short bursts of brain activity, and K complexes are single high voltage strikes of brain activity. Also, in stage two delta brain waves start to slow function of the brain preparing for stage three and four. Stage three and stage four i will talk about as one because they are very similar and do similar things. These stages are referred to slow wave sleep because your brain is in it’s slowest speed of function. In stage three you brain is between 20 and 50 percent delta waves, from 50 to 100 percent delta waves you are considered to be in stage four. While in stage four people may experience sleep walking and other muscular movement without knowing so. Noises as loud as 90 decibels may not be able to wake the person from sleep. During REM sleep which is after NREM sleep the brain is more active and alert. This is where most dreams occur because your brain is active but you are still sleeping. After the short 15 minute period of REM sleep you will start over with stage one of NREM these cycles normally take 90 minutes to complete. Activity during sleep can come at any point but is most common in REM or stage four of
This stage does last longer than the previous one but only by 10 more minutes. In Non-REM 2, you have this weird and fascinating action happing in your noggin know as sleep spindles. These sleep spindles are bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity. After this stage comes one of the best parts of sleep and the part that you’ll generally wake up covered in drool in. This happens to be Non-REM 3 which is often categorized as deep sleep. In this particular stage, we are welcomed by slow delta waves that our brain emits. When this stage has had it’s time to shine, which is 30 minutes, it is time to move onto the final
While experiencing good sleep, I will unconsciously pass through five stages: 1, 2, 3, 4 and REM sleep (citation). According to the PL100 text, these stages progress cyclically from 1 through REM then begin again with stage 1, and usually,
Isn’t it amazing that a baby starts to learn language before birth? Newborns are actively developing language skills, yet they cannot talk fluently at the very beginning. Adults are unintentionally communicating with babies in a different way than they talk to other adults. People tend to talk to babies using simple and repetitive words, and exaggerated tones. This term is being called as child-directed speech. We can always see an adult talks to baby in this way. For instance, parents tell the kid “you are great” in a lighter voice, use simple words, increased tone. Moreover, all babies do babbling, even babies with listening problems. Babbling is when a baby says repetitive syllabus, and most likely, no one could understand except the baby herself. Bubbling is a must-have experience for all infants to stimulate language skills, so that they can develop normally.
These stages are characterized by bursts of electrical activity on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. EEG readings monitor electrical activity representing neuronal activity in specific neurophysiological regions. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is characterized by desynchronized, saw-toothed theta rhythm waves and heightened cognitive activity. Comparatively, high amplitude, synchronous delta waves, and sharp hippocampal waves characterize slow wave sleep (SWS) sleep (stages 3-4 of non-REM sleep) (Tucker et al. 2006).
Researchers have classified two definitive types of sleep, REM, otherwise known as rapid eye movement, and non REM and have divided the sleep cycle into four distinct stages. REM sleep is associated with dreaming as most of our dreams occur during this stage. REM waves are very fast and resemble beta waves which indicate that you are awake. REM sleep is usually
NREM stage one is the beginning of the sleep cycle. It is known as the transitional stage between being awake and being asleep. During this stage, your brain produces theta waves, theta waves are extremely slow brain waves. This lasts about 5-10 minutes. NREM stage 2 of sleep lasts about 20 minutes. During this stage, the brain produces sleep spindles which are bursts of rapid and rhythmic brain wave activity. This is when everything starts too slows down. NREM stage 3 is when your brain produces delta waves during this stage which are very slow and deep brain waves. This stage lasts about 35-45 minutes. REM sleep is most dreaming occurs during this stage. This stage has rapid eye movement, increased respiration rate, and increased brain activity.
There are two distinct phases of human sleep. One phase is non-REM sleep, and the other is REM sleep. Non-REM sleep takes place in the first few hours of sleep at night, and REM sleep takes over the remaining hours allowing us to have dreams. Non-REM sleep is normally referred to as the resting state for our brain. Intense studies have discovered that the brain is less active during the phases of non-REM sleep compared to phases of being awake.
This stage is believed to help people enter deeper stages of sleep (4). Stage 3 sleep consists of 20-50 percent delta activity and stage 4 sleep of more than 50 percents delta activity (4). Stages 3 and 4 are characterized as being slow wave sleep in addition to being the deepest levels of sleep. Approximately 90 minutes after being asleep, people enter rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep (4). REM sleep consists of rapid eye movements, a desynchronized EEG, sensitivity to external stimulation, muscle paralysis and dreaming (4).
Language is something that we need and use for everything in our lives. Language is, “a symbolic communication system that is learned instead of biologically inherited.” (O’Neil, 2006). Language is communication that is either written down or spoken in words or sentences. We need to have a good understanding of language to learn, work and for our normal lives. You need to know language to be able to communicate with other people. Language has structure and meaning, for example words and sentences. Language also had tone, pitch, pace and volume. There are several types of language, receptive language, expressive language, emergent language. Receptive language is how you receive and understand language and expressive language is how
Then, cooing appears when the child is between six to eight weeks old, where the infant demonstrates happy vowel like sounds (Hoff, 2006). At age sixteen weeks infants begin to demonstrate laughter and vocal play (Hoff, 2006). Between six and nine month old babies begin to produce babbling sounds, then they utter their first word around age one (Hoff, 2006). When children speak their first word it is usually as an isolated unit (Goldin-Meadow, 2006), and not considered a major step in phonological development (Hoff, 2006). Children then learn that their first spoken word is composed of smaller parts, which is known as morphology, and that the word can be used as a building block for larger sentences called syntax (Goldin-Meadow, 2006). A child’s first word goes farther then communicating a message between the child and communicative partner, the word retains symbolic meaning (Goldin-Meadow, 2006). At age eighteen months phonological processes develop, in which the child’s speech characteristics begin to transform (Hoff, 2006). Subsequent to eighteen months the child’s vocabulary grows and with this growth the child is able to phonemically represent a sound with the mental representation of every word that possesses a sound (Hoff, 2006).
According to Zukowski (2013), language development refers to the process of learning in early life where infants acquire various forms, meaning and word usage. In addition, language refers to the different utterances in regards to linguistic input. Language development in childhood focuses on major arguments in
In this essay, we will discuss the different stages of language acquisition. There are five main stages that any child passes through to acquire the first language and these stages are: