Stasis Research Paper

Decent Essays

How is stasis re-established following a disruption to BGR (alcohol intake)?
Alcoholic beverages, deliver two main nutrients which the body metabolises – sugar and ethanol. Normally, low BGL stimulates glucagon secretion (from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets) to bring BGL back up to stasis through glycogenolysis. And when BGL beings to rise, additional insulin is secreted (from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets) to bring BGL back down to stasis through glycogenesis. However, alcohol consumption inhibits the liver’s ability to do this – BGR is interrupted. This is because the body reacts to alcohol as a toxin, so its detoxification is prioritised by the body (all energy is spent on expelling it). The liver can’t multitask …show more content…

A great proportion of alcohol metabolism occurs in the liver; this is also the primary location of the production of glucose from the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) or from the breakdown of non-carbohydrate sources - amino acids, pyruvate, glycerol (gluconeogenesis). Alcohol is detoxified and removed from the blood through a process called oxidation. Oxidation prevents the alcohol from accumulating and destroying cells and organs. Alcohol is metabolised by an enzyme in the liver cells known as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and ALDH oxidise ethanol into acetate. First ADH breaks down alcohol into acetaldehyde and then another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) rapidly breaks down acetaldehyde into acetate. Acetate is further metabolised and eventually leaves the body as carbon dioxide and water. This oxidation process consumes 2 NAD+ generating 2 NADH. The high concentration of excess NADH produced inhibits gluconeogenesis by preventing the oxidation of lactate to pyruvate. Instead, it causes the reverse reaction to occur, resulting in lactate to accumulate – this can result in acidosis (lactic acid build-up) and hypoglycaemia from the lack of glucose produced. Pyruvate is the first designated substrate of the gluconeogenesis process which can then be used to synthesise glucose, hence why when alcohol is inhibited, gluconeogenesis doesn’t

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