Strategies for Test Taking and Their Effects Essay

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Belcher (1985) maintained that test score reflects both the knowledge and aptitude of test takers and the ability of using the characteristics and format of test effectively (as cited in Pour-Mohammadi and Zainol Abidin 2012). Popham & Madaus (1987) and Romberg, Williams, Zarrinnia (1989) defined testing as high stakes, because they influence both local and state administrators’ decisions about curriculum, appropriate programs, learners’ promotion (as cited in Herman, Dreyfus, Golan 1990). Pour-Mohammadi and Zainol Abidin (2012) noted that students’ ability is not the only criterion in their performance in tests.
Hambleton, Swaminathan and Rogers (1991) mentioned that Some Cognitive and psychological factors also affect their …show more content…

Cohen (1998a, 1998b) considered test taking strategies as combination of two different kinds of strategies language –use and test-wiseness strategies; he also believed that target language learners consciously apply strategies which are regarded as mental operations or processes for the purpose of accomplishing language tasks (Nikaki and Stathopoulou 2009).
According to Nikaki and Stathopoulou (2009) Strategy can be considered as one of the mostly referred terms in Applied linguistics and Second language acquisitions studies. Brush (1981) found that discrete tactics, rules, and procedures are regarded as the characteristics of test strategies which have a significant role in enhancing learners’ ability in solving test questions (Nikaki and Stathopoulou 2009). Rogers and Harley (1999) believed that strategies for test-taking help learners to use characteristics and format of a test to have a better performance (as cited in Pour-Mohammadi and Zainol Abidin 2012). “Bond (1981) distinguishes between test-wiseness and test-coaching. Test-wiseness is independent of knowledge of subject-matter and is applicable across a range of content areas. Test-coaching, on the other hand, refers to: ’sustained instruction in the domain presumably being measured” (as cite in Amer, 1993, p.71).
Hirano (2009) found that there are three types of strategies

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