Arrighi,G,. Silver,J,B,. and Brewer,D,B,. 2003. Industrial Convergence, Globalization, and the Persistence of the North-South Divide. Studies in Comparative International Development. p.3-31
Through the use of descriptive and comparative analysis, the authors intend on demonstrating that the convergence of the industrialization gap was not accompanied by a convergence in the income levels gap between former First World and Third World countries. Thus, the North-South divide still exists. Through economic models, the persistence of the North-South income divide is explained. Simultaneously, the authors discuss the development project and globalization project and how the shifts occurred. Additionally, the reproduction of the …show more content…
Due to this legacy, it is anticipated that decolonization and industrialization of Third World countries would reduce the North-South divide. The authors moreover, explain that theories of national development believed that industrialization was essential for Third World countries to attain wealth standards of the First World countries. This became the objective of the Third World development efforts and the narrowing of the industrialization gap was the instrument through which this would be achieved (Arrighi,G,. Silver,J,B,. and Brewer,D,B,. 2003.p.6). This subsequently led to synonymous use of industrialization and development. To conclude this subsection, the authors provide reasons to why the paper focuses on industrialization and the North-South divide. Firstly, the reasons for focusing on industrialization are because the authors wish to verify empirically the validity of the theory (or assumption) that industrialization is the most effective means of achieving the development efforts objective. Further reasons include that industrialization has costs and benefits, but these quantifiable costs are visible and invisible. On the other hand, the focus on the North-South divide is aimed at assessing the success or failure of the Third World development efforts. In the next subsection, the authors use empirical
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Many different contexts group together to make up the term “globalization” such as: technology, trade, offshoring, outsourcing integration, migration, transportation, and environmental pollution. In plain terms, globalization can be described as a process that embraces economic and cultural transmissions between countries. This process is intended to improve the function of economic activities worldwide. The movement also supports the idea of internationalism. Influencing a nation to adopt new political views and educational values can be a potentially positive way to help a struggling nation develop. However, economic improvement in this situation is not always the case. Research provides an irregular pattern concerning economic development. Focusing in on the impact of globalization in South Africa, both positives and negatives have played a part in this country’s struggle to compete with the rest of the world.
Globalization and its economic, cultural and technological effects characterize the modern international political economy. As the world has become increasingly integrated both winners and losers have emerged in the international system. The benefits of globalization are disproportionally enjoyed by the developed nations of the Global North. This is evidenced by the income inequality that exists between the Global North and the Global South. So the question then arises of what can be done to help decrease income inequality in developing countries. One approach that we will study is will be the adoption of organized labor. Some believe that organized labor could be a powerful catalyst for stimulating economic growth in developing nations. As wages are kept low and labor standards either do not exist or are not enforced, workers in developing nations seem to be doomed to perpetual oppression and exploitation by the advanced industrialized countries. However, as we shall see, organized labor is not the answer. The adoption of organized labor would not decrease income inequality in the Global South, as doing so would be counterproductive to employment growth in a climate of increasing globalization. Instead, countries in the Global South may want to consider social protection and educational initiatives that would
Within the last 60 years, Third World development has been a global priority, at the top of virtually every Western agenda. And with the rise of the global population and poverty levels continuing to rise along with it, it is very easy to see why human development is becoming such a topic of focus and discussion among members of the academia. But one question that everyone wants the answer too is, how does Third World development fit into Globalization? Despite apparent compatibility, when closely examined it is clear to see that Globalization actually contradicts Third World development due to the conflict of agendas. Both Globalization and Development hold views concerning market reform, social structure and regulation, which are
Assess the significance of three factors which might limit economic development in the developing countries.
Modernization Theory- “Low income countries are affected by their lack of industrialization and can improve their global economic standing through
The Current international aid system led by NGO needs to revise their plans on how best to help third world countries modernize into the current industrial era. Third world countries need to become self-sufficient in order decrease the poverty gap and provide companies to compete at a completive playing field in a global
After the end of the World War II the world faced the challenges of economic and social recovery. The majority of developing countries based their economies on Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI), the state-oriented approach to a trade and economic policy. ISI supports the replacement of import with domestic production in order to reduce foreign dependency. This protectionist policy dominated in developing countries, especially in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa, during the first 30 years after the World War II. By 1980s, when the main gains of ISI were exhausted and it demonstrated its inefficiency, the countries of East Asia adopted a new development strategy. Consequently, this new export-oriented and market-friendly strategy, so-called East Asian model, has determined the successful economic and trade policy of East Asian countries during the next several decades. To understand the reasons of the shift from ISI to the East Asian model, it is needed to carefully examine and contrast these two approaches and their supporting theories.
Most of the developing countries are mired deeply in economical obstacles, which prevent them from development significantly. In order to overcome those embarrassments world’s society struggles to find the efficient solution for poor countries’ economies. Historically, developed countries undertook policy of giving aid to their colonies, afterwards by the end of The Second World War the United States and United Nations embarked the global sponsorship to the developing countries and countries of the Third World due to humanitarian considerations. Since then many other countries have joined in the effort to provide financial aid to lesser developed or poverty ridden countries. But none of those countries that received an aid had experienced a prosperity phase and rapid economic growth.
The rise of globalization following WWII generated three important factors that define today’s world. McNeill and McNeill agree with Pollard, Rosenberg, and Tignor that multiple economic changes, such as the creation of financial institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) contributed to the globalization of the world economy. Carter and Warren further this argument by claiming that globalization has caused shifts in the modern economy, namely the rise of Asian economic powers. However, all three historians agree that the rise of globalization goes hand in hand with the rise of inequality in today’s world. Gaps in power, wealth, and access to information have only widened due to the trend of globalization. The final key factor defining our world today are the ongoing processes affecting development countries. McNeill and McNeill argue similarly to Carter and Warren that the end of imperialism generated new nations who quickly realized the free market was a pathway to stability. However, Pollard et al. and McNeill and McNeill place importance on financial institutions like the IMF forcing developing nations to reform their economies to be subservient to the world’s economy. Together, these historians argue that the trend of globalization following WWII caused factors like the modern global economy, the rise in inequality, and the development of new, decolonized nations to be key determiners in the world today.
Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) as an economic development strategy was pioneered and grew out of the belief, “markets alone could not be relied upon to provide the physical capital and set up industries necessary for development,” (Demir, 2017). According to Demir (2017), “the pioneers of development economics viewed underdevelopment as a lack of capital which determined a very low labor productivity. Thus in its early phase (the 1950s and early 1960s), ideas surrounding development focused on capital accumulation and industrialization as the major vehicles to promote development.” It was believed by policymakers that richer countries used the accumulation of capital and industrialization as the primary catalyst to spur development; these policymakers also believed capital accumulation and industrialization would be the best method for developing economies to achieve development themselves. Thus ISI was born.
Globalization is the proximate and multidimensional set of political, economic, social, and technological integration around the globe. The increasing interconnectedness among countries can be seen through the prism of globalization. Essentially, the lives of people living in distant cities like Bangalore and Silicon Valley are brought closer as a result of this phenomenon. Drivers of this adjacent include; the expansion of trade, technological exchange, labor movement and investments (Stearns 2017). The discourse of globalization encompasses several multidisciplinary themes. The paper, however, concentrates on the economic factors, “which, entails the closer economic integration of countries of the world through increased flow of goods, services, capital and even labor.” (Stiglitz 2007: 4). The paper focuses on economic globalization and elucidates whether the globalization has reduced poverty and inequality or had reproduced the reversed implications. Meanwhile, the paper reveals if the developing world has benefited from the set. This seems to be the central question that policymakers, development economists, and politicians have been grappling with for years. The paper is presented in three parts. Part one reflects on the historical context of the problem statement. The second part compiles literature and juxtaposes with cases to corroborate the globalization-poverty-inequality triangle. Finally, the conclusion represents the author’s viewpoint on the
Lack of development in countries in the so-called `Third World' has many political and economical reasons. Historians explain the inadequacy of developing countries with the early imperialism and the resulting colonization of the South. Exploitation of mineral resources, deforestation, slavery, and the adaptation of foreign policies shaped the picture of today's suffering and struggling civilizations and natural rich continents. The omission of concessions and equal negotiations between dependency and supremacy give rise to the contrast of enormous resources and immense poverty in developing countries is. In the last years the outcry of justice and the emancipation of the Third World became louder throughout developing and industrialized
He pointed out that different economic levels have their own requirements and they may not follow the same process of industrialization. Moreover, he raised the most influential theory related to late industrialization that the economically backward states may have rapider growth rate as they are late comers, and the national development process relied on the degree of economic backwardness. That is to say the more backward a country, the faster it will advance (ibid).
Global stratification can be defined that globe countries and areas are not on an equal footing in the process of economic, political and cultural globalization (Andersen & Taylor, 2006). The economic globalization has exacerbated the imbalance of world economy and has widened the wealth gap. Globalization has brought unfair relationships between developing countries and developed countries. Gao (2000) noted that economic globalization has expanded the gap between South and North. And it has brought huge shocks to national economy of developing countries. The international economic organizations like the Word Bank, IMF and WTO are in the hand of developed countries (El-Ojeili, C. & Hayden, P., 2006.). All the principles, institutions and sequences for the world economic operation are made by them. (Sklair, 2002)What’s more, the economic, technical and management advantages that is owned by Western countries cannot be easily and fully surpassed by developing countries.