Taking a Look at Quantum Cryptography

2519 Words Feb 26th, 2018 10 Pages
In this paper we will discuss what quantum cryptography is and what makes it most secure and unbreakable.

Introduction

All our classical computer cryptography methods are basically based on some mathematical calculations which are quiet easy to implement in one direction but very difficult to process in the other direction. As RSA(Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) algorithm which is one of the first practicable and most famous public-key cryptosystems, RSA, is based on the technique of factoring large numbers which makes it secure. Difficulty in factoring increases with number of digits in RSA key. For example, a 128 digit number would take millions of years to factor with current computers.

There are still limitations in classical cryptography, it is purely mathematical and information cannot be separated from its physical representation. In Classical physics, we use binary form to store and process the data. In the 1980s, C.Bennet, P.Benioff, R.Feynman and others observed that new and very powerful ways of information processing are possible with quantum mechanical systems. This gave birth to the concept of quantum computing.

We have algorithms such as Shor’s Algorithm, a quantum computer can break a very large number into its prime factors otherwise which could take millions of years to be solved. The day when quantum cryptography will become a reality, above…

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