The nineteenth century was known as the “Age of Imperialism”, a time where the United States and other major world powers expanded their territories for resources and power. American imperialism was partly based on American Exceptionalism; the idea that the United States is different from other countries because of their world mission to spread liberty and democracy. The United States became an imperial power by the 20th century because of the economic motivation of trade and profit in China, the benefited political welfare of the Philippines, and the military force of the Spanish- American war in Mexico.
The Open Door Policy was a statement of principles initiated by the U.S. in 1899 and 1900, providing protection of equal rights and privileges with countries trading with China, and supporting Chinese territorial and administrative equality. The statement was issued by the United States secretary of state, John Hay to Great Britain, Italy, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan. It was received with world approval, and became the cornerstone of American foreign policy for more than 40 years in East Asia. The world powers scrambled for “Spheres of Influence”- primarily Russia, France, Germany, and Great Britain. Each of the spheres contained a controlling power that claimed exclusive privileges of investment, and it was feared that each would try to monopolize the trade of other countries. Moreover, it was greatly feared that the breakup of China into economic segments