The Behavioral And Psychological Symptoms Of Dementia

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Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), first described and named after Dr Alois Alzheimer in 1906, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, neuropathologically characterised by gross cerebral atrophy, extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (Zetterberg & Mattsson, (2014). Clinically, AD is characterised by memory loss, cognitive impairment and behavioural and psychological changes (Carter, Resnick, Mallampalli & Kalbarczyk, 2012). The Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) have a significant impact on the quality of life of the person with dementia and the caregiver (Rouch et al, 2014). The existence and intensity of the BPSD has a greater negative impact on caregivers then the actual cognitive decline (Rouch et al, 2014). AD is the most common cause of dementia and accounts of 60 – 80% of all dementia cases (Carter et al, 2012). AD is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 300 000 people in Australia and is expected to rise to 1 million people by 2050 (Creegan, Hunt, McManus & Smith, 2015). Over the next 5 years, direct cost to the healthcare system is expected to rise from $3.2 billion to $6 billion (Creegan et al, 2015). Globally it is estimated that by 2050, one in eighty-five individuals will be suffering from AD (Creegan et al, 2015). Women are disproportionately affected by the disease, with almost two thirds of Americans with AD being women (Carter et al, 2012). The first key

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