Summary Section Introduction and Hypothesis In 2011 researchers from Hiroshima International University of Japan published an article titled, “Biological aspect of hyperthymic temperament: light, sleep, and serotonin” in the Journal of Psychopharmacology. According to this article hyperthymic temperament—a proposed personality type-seems to be a common characteristic of bipolar disorder. Past research suggest that temperament types such as: depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable, and anxious (Akiskal and Mallya et al., 1987;Akiskal et al.,1995) are precursor of mood disorders. The aim of this article to gain a better understanding of the biological factors that create hyperthymic temperament, it specifically focuses on sleep and serotonin. The article also focuses on a non-biological factor that may create hyperthymic temperament: a person’s exposure to light. Akiskal and Pinto (1999) have deemed people with bipolar IV disorder—characterized by hyperthymic temperament- to be part of the soft bipolar spectrum. It has been observed that such people on average have what is considered to be a hyperthymic temperament but have occasional depressive episodes. As a result of those depressive episodes, such people are given anti-depressant drugs as treatment. In turn those drugs often lead their users having unwanted side effects, they may respond better to mood stabilizing drugs that are used to treat bipolar disorder (Stahl et al., 2008). Goodwin and Jamison’s (1990)
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder known for severe persistent mood instabilities between mania and depression, . It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, and activity levels which makes ability to perform daily tasks very hard. (Concepts Advisory Panel [CAP], 2015). BPD affects more than 2.3 million adult Americans, or 1% of the population. (Guo, Patel, Li, & Keck 2010). There are four basic types of bipolar spectrum; All of them involve clear change in the mood energy, and activity levels (CAP,2015). These mood incidences’ ranges from periods of extremely high and energized behavior known as Manic episodes to very sad, or hopeless periods known as depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder, the client has at least one episode of manic followed by major depression. Bipolar II disorder, the client has one or more hypomanic and major depressive episodes, the other not so severe and less diagnoses type of Bipolar is chronic mood disorder that lasts more two years with combination of hypomania and dysthymia. (CAP,2015). This paper will go into, Bipolar I, Manic episodes, the pathophysiology, Sign and symptoms, treatments, comorbidity, nursing intervention and nursing and patient therapeutic relationship.
Aristotle famously asked why is it that all men who have become outstanding in philosophy, poetry and arts are melancholic. This question remains unanswered today. Bipolar disorder is one of the most distinctive conditions in psychiatry. Many famous musicians, writers, and leaders of society have had bipolar disorder. Many of these people — and some of their physicians — have been concerned that the pharmacologic treatment of their mood swings might
Bipolar disorder also known as manic depressive illness is a brain disorder that causes shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out everyday task (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). Every year, 2.9% of the U.S population is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, with nearly 83% of causes being classified as severe (NAMI). According to Miller, Ghadiali, Larusso, Wahlen, Ani-Barron, Mittal, Greene (2015), bipolar disorder is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Most people that experience this disorder experience highs and lows of the illness. In this paper, various components of bipolar disorder will be discussed. The components include: population dynamics, physical illnesses that accompany the disorder, risk factors and social determinants, treatment, prevention, health promotion, and cultural differences found globally.
Nusslock is a professor at Northwestern University. After graduating with a Ph.D. from University of Wisconsin-Madison, he went on to study neuroscience at Pittsburg medical school. This journal focuses on how criteria regarding bipolar disorders may fail to include milder bipolar syndromes. The main argument is the criteria for diagnosing mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, is not adequate. He argues there is no reliable criteria equipped for diagnosing mild cases of bipolar disorder. Mild bipolar disorder is significant and should not go unnoticed, argues Nusslock. “Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who display subsyndromal hypomanic features, not concurrent with a major depressive episode, have a more severe course compared to individuals with MDD and no hypomanic features, and more closely resemble individuals with bipolar disorder on a number of clinical validators,” claims Nusslock. His findings prove what he hypothesized. The article gives the reader an insight to how important subtle symptoms are and how no person or behavior deserves to go unnoticed. He suggests there is a fault with how we are diagnosing bipolar disorders. We tend to group patients into a larger category, rather than finding a diagnosis that fits properly. The evidence in this article is a combination of research and Nusslock’s own ideas. Because he is able to combine thoughts and ideas, the information is more reliable. This article may be biased because he seems to be solely talking about his perspective than the opposite perspective. Nusslock continuously reflects on his strong sense of opinion. He seems to be very passionate about bipolar disorder and wants to be a part of making a difference. In my opinion, the information is reliable for one side. It does not show reliability for an opposing opinion because there seems to be no other opinion present. This article is a
The two major types of Bipolar Disorder (BPD) set out in this paper are Bipolar 1 and 2. Bipolar 1 is diagnosed as guide lined by the DSM5. As the occurrence of a least one maniac episode preceding or post an episode of hypomania and/or Major depression. The DSM 5 highlights that Bipolar 2 is diagnosed by one major depressive episode in occurrence with one hypomanic episode with an absence of Mania. (Association:, 2013) Mania as defined by DSM5: “A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased goal-directed activity or energy, lasting at least 1 week and present most of the day, nearly every day.” Hypomania being: “A distinct period of abnormally and
Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness in which a person's mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. Bipolar disorder is also called manic-depressive illness. In a related disorder called cyclothymic disorder (sometimes called Bipolar III), a person's mood alternates between mild depression and mild mania. Some people with cyclothymic disorder later develop full-blown bipolar disorder. Rates of bipolar disorder are similar throughout the world. At least fifteen percent of people with bipolar disorder commit suicide. Bipolar disorder is much less common than depression. Many people with bipolar disorder function normally between episodes. Medications known as "mood stabilizers" are usually prescribed by
Though the symptoms of bipolar disorder are serious and it lacks a cure, there are many treatment options that can drastically include the quality of life of patients. There are numerous medications that can be prescribed to limit the severity of manic and depressive episodes. These medications help regulate the moods of patients, and they can even prevent severe mood episodes altogether. However, the side effects that come with these medications can be difficult to manage. Sometimes, these side effects are as minor as excessive drooling, but they can also cause weight gain, sexual dysfunction, sleepiness, and insomnia. In the most severe cases, however, some medications can cause organ failure and death. That is why it is important for patients
Psychiatric mood disorders of such as Bipolar are often complex to diagnosis. Bipolar I is differentiated from Bipolar II by a history of at least one manic episode in a person’s life, with Bipolar II being diagnosed and characterized by a history of major depression with at least one episode of hypomania (Sadock, Sadock, and Ruiz, 2015). Bipolar is often misdiagnosed as major depression, especially in the presence of a dual diagnosis of substance use disorders. Individuals with Bipolar often have a history of self-medicating their mood symptoms of mania and
Thomas Wheaton construes in the article “Bipolar Disorder: The Agony and Ecstasy” facts on the condition as well as his own personal experience. Bipolar disorder as of now is divided into two different types that varies with treatment. The first is considered manageable, however the second needs a large amount of attention. Medication being one of the main treatments recommended for this type causes numerous side effects including, organ deterioration, heat susceptibility and vertigo.
The severe mood fluctuations of bipolar or manic-depressive disorders have been around since the 16-century and affect little more than 2% of the population in both sexes, all races, and all parts of the world (Harmon 3). Researchers think that the cause is genetic, but it is still unknown. The one fact of which we are painfully aware of is that bipolar disorder severely undermines its' victims ability to obtain and maintain social and occupational success. Because the symptoms of bipolar disorder are so debilitation, it is crucial that we search for possible treatments and cures.
Before I truly understood Bipolar disorder, it was still a fairly common word in my vocabulary. Anytime I thought someone was being moody or fluctuating between emotions, I joked by claiming that person to be bipolar. Several incidents of this involved one of my roommates who seemed to be happy one day, and quite the polar opposite the next. However, it was not until my clinical experience on the psychiatric unit that I realized what true bipolar disorder was, and that she did not fit the criteria. Even though I always thought my roommate was bipolar, I quickly found after being exposed to a diagnosed bipolar patient that my roommate was instead just moody. I decided to write this paper on bipolar disorder, not because I have struggle with it or know a friend or family member with this disease, but because I had several misconceptions about what it entailed.