IR 349 Section G1
The Birth of the League of Nations
The Great War, now commonly referred to as World War One, ended on November 11th, 1918. In its wake lied a tremendously devastated Europe, which was where the majority of the carnage took place. Following World War One, Europeans were struggling to restore some sense of normalcy for themselves and their families. To do that, maintaining peace was imperative. Europe’s economy was in shambles, their land was left greatly damaged and citizens were emotionally scarred from the abundant fatality of the war. Thousands of European soldiers died and left behind families who were mourning while trying to overcome the widespread poverty that remained in the wake of …show more content…
Though they understood that countries needed to have some artillery on hand in case of emergency, they recognized the fine line between self-defense and militarization and how it needed to be treated carefully. It was clear that Europe’s sense of security was fragile and any actions that could be interpreted as aggression would be taken seriously. The language of Article 11 of the Covenant of the League of Nations emphasized just how serious threats to international peace, particularly European peace, will be taken. And the tone echoed the fear and uncertainty that most Europeans had. Although former President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson may of intended for the League of Nations to be an international body whose purpose was to “afford mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity” for its members, it was no such thing. Instead, it was an insurance policy whose signatories’ motivation for joining was fear, not to cooperate and foster interdependence.
Many times when covering the creation of the League of Nations, history books make the mistake of romanticizing the reality that brought forth this organization. In actuality, European countries were not thinking about how they can create new partnerships and solidify their old ones at the end of WWI. European leaders were not thinking of how to protect the political independence of sovereign nations. They were terrified and
Assess the effectiveness of the League of Nations to the maintenance of peace in Europe to 1939.The League of Nations was severely ineffective to the maintenance of peace within Europe up to 1939. The failures of the League of Nations in world affairs such as at Manchuria, Abyssinia and during the Spanish Civil War lead to the collapse of collective security, as the concept of internationalism was not realized amongst the members of the League of Nations, which was essential if the was ever to be a successful peace keeping mechanism. The nationalistic way in which countries thought and acted, counter-¬‐argued against such an internationalist ideal such as the League of Nations, and it was these factors that prevented the League of Nations from
The league of nations was created by the winners of WWI and was intended to prevent future world wars. The idea was created by the US president Woodrow Wilson. The League of Nations was supposed to be a council that included all the world nations to discuss topics and keep peace. This organization failed in stopping WWII. The League had multiple opportunities to stop the second world war, but failed miserably. The League of Nations had very limited authority on countries such as Japan, Italy, Germany and the USSR. “The main weapon of the League was to ask member countries to stop trading with aggressive countries”(Wheeler). The League of Nations was treated as a joke and could not enforce any of the rules that they set. The League had no authority because they had no army to threaten the aggressive countries. Additionally, countries such as Italy and Germany were not part of the League and therefore had no obligation to listen to them or make peace talks. If the League was set up in a better format and way to work it would not have failed and they could have been able to stop the second world
The League of Nations was an organization created following the year after the concession of World War I in 1918. The purpose of this union was to maintain world stability and peace. The League of Nations was proposed by President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points and was considered relatively controversial. Congress had to vote upon whether the United States would join or not. Two of the Senators gave speeches, Senator Gilbert Hitchcock and Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, advocating their parties’ views.
World War II happened because of a multitude of things because of the way they dealt with Germany. The start of the war had many things contributing to it. Because of the faulty League of Nations as well as appeasement in European countries, World War II took a turn for the worst, making it the biggest, most deadly, and most impactful war in history. The League of Nations was one thing that contributed to the start of World War II.
By the end of the first world war, the international community founded the League of Nations, the first international security organization with the primary goal of maintaining world peace. The first world war saw drastic increases in mankind 's capacity to kill other human beings and cause insurmountable harm to human society and culture. The human condition was drastically different. With a new world war on the horizon, the international community had decided to band together to form a way in which it could help exercise the correct legal disposition and formality to positively influence the world. An international body was crucial after the first world war in order to maintain peace and order as the world picked up the pieces from their injustices. This was also true after the Second world war where the world saw, again, how the cruelties of humanity had to be prevented in order for the international body to prevent the forming of higher casualty rates and human suffering.
On the 10th of January 1920 the League of Nations came into effect after the forty-two nations implicated had signed and ratified the League of Nations covenant. After the First World War broke out in 1914, after the assassination of Duke Ferdinand in Sarajevo. The tensions between the countries lead to bloody fights. And so, the two main voices of the war, Woodrow Wilson and David Lloyd George proposed a main International Body to maintain peace. As they saw how devastating it was for a country and detrimental another war would be on them. Woodrow Wilson was became a strong advocate. He then proposed his fourteen points to put a term to the war.
In 1918, Wilson gave a speech to Congress that outlined fourteen points for peace and the end of World War 1. President Wilson hoped that this war would be the “war to end all wars”. In his speech, he discussed diplomatic issues, which included freedom of navigation on the seas, and the removal of trade barriers. He also discussed territorial issues, which included the freedom of French territory, Russia being allowed to determine its own form of government, and German troops evacuating from Belgium as it becomes its own independent country. One of the fourteen points in Wilson’s speech was for A League of Nations to be formed in order to protect the independence of all countries. Wilson believed that this League of Nations would reduce international conflict and prevent any conflict from escalating. At the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson received approval for a League of Nations and returned to Congress to present the Treaty of Versailles, which included the League of Nations. Wilson faced rejection and resistance to the treaty and the League when presenting it to the Senate. Many believed that Wilson had not put America’s best interests in mind and that by being a part of the League of Nations the U.S. would have too much responsibility when it came to international affairs. Congress continued to reject the treaty and the U.S. involvement in the League. Wilson may have failed to create order in the world, however, The League of Nations did exist, but without America’s
Politics: Politically, the 1920s could be described as pro-business and anti-union. These two main principles of our political time period directly contrast that of the error of reforms pre-war America was in. Coming into this decade, the war has come to an end and now the U.S believes it is time for a hedonistic interlude. A time of less reforms and more business. Post-war America is a start of a new chapter for our young country which obviously comes with its own set of problems.
The League of Nations was established after World War One to keep peace, one of its functions was to uphold the Treaty of Versailles. This led a lot of people to feel that the League is a force representing the winners of the First World War against the Germans. This made people to connect it with the harshness of the Treaty and so led to a lack of trust in the League of Nations. For example the Germans were bitter that they had to accept the total blame for starting the war and hated the fact they had to pay reparations of £6,600,000,000 and didn't want anything that stood for it. Hitler saw all these weaknesses of the League and believed that if he invaded a country the League would be unable to stop him.
As it was built on the unrealistic premise that nations would overlook their own interests in order to look after other members, the League of Nations and Collective Security was destined to fail. Nations were required to turn over their right to make decisions and foreign policies over to an international body so as to establish ‘internationalism.’ The requirements of the league are described by historian E.H Carr as being, overly optimistic, ‘hollow and without substance.’ The invasion of Abyssinia by Mussolini was the embodiment of the failure of Collective Security. Upon hearing of Mussolini’s intent to invade the smaller country, Britain and France decided to refrain from intervening as they hoped to make an ally of Italy and did not want Mussolini to break the Stresa Front and side with Hitler. Of course Italy did side with Hitler and through their idleness, set a precedent of inaction that encouraged Hitler and the axis powers to act. Similar examples of the failure of the League can also be seen in its response to Italy and Germany’s involvement in the Spanish Civil War and Japan’s invasion of Manchuria.
World War 1 exposed the need for an association of nations, a body to promote international peace and security. The necessity of an organization to prevent global conflict of the nature of World War 1 was initially pointed out by President Woodrow Wilson in his congressional speech in 1918. The emergence of the League of Nations was a natural corollary to the catastrophic consequences of the Great War.
In this essay, I am going to look at the successes and failures of the League of Nations (LofN) in its struggle for peace throughout the 1920’s. The LofN was the ‘brain child’ of American president Woodrow Wilson. The four other main powers (Britain, France, Japan and Italy) joined along with approximately 60 other countries from around the world. The U.S.A then abandoned its ‘child’ as to social and economic unrest led to a more isolationist foreign policy. Yet the other four main countries continued to support the LofN and formed the council, consisting to the ‘most powerful countries’. The LofN was set up to enforce peace in Europe and the world. It created various
However, the League, once secure used its representatives' power and presence as a threat, but did not follow through with such threats when major opposition arose. For example, in the 1930s, the League of Nations "possessed neither the will nor the means to stop them [fascist dictators in Italy, Germany, and Japan]" (Patterson, UN, 14). Although this organization did little to prevent the Second World War in 1939, it did pave the way for humanitarian aid efforts to refugees and helped to resolve a number of border disputes before the war.
"The League of Nations was doomed To failure from the start" Adam Jenner Many may believe that the League of Nations was doomed to failure as soon as the doors of their Geneva headquarters were opened; many may say that it was built on unstable foundations; that the very idea of it was a grave misjudgment by the powers that were. Indeed it is true that the League of Nations, when it was set up was marred with many fundamental flaws. The League of Nations was formed after the end of the First World War. It was an idea that President Wilson introduced as an international police force to maintain peace and to ensure the devastating atrocities like the First World War ever happening again. The principle mission of the League of Nations was to maintain World Peace. Their failure as the international peacekeeping organization to maintain world peace brought the outbreak of Second World War. Their failure in policing and preventing peace in settling disputes throughout Europe, erupted into the most devastating war ever. Through my analysis of the failures of the League of Nations to maintain world peace, my arguments will demonstrate the understandings of the reasons and events that created the most devastating environment for the Second World War.