In 1934, Congress created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to assist citizens with their housing needs. According to “Department of Housing and Urban Development” on Allgov.com, “In July 1947, the Housing and Home Finance Agency was established to help people buy homes following World War II. Two years later, the Housing Act of 1949 was enacted to help eradicate slums and promote redevelopment in urban areas.” The Department of Housing and Urban Development Act began with the Housing Act of 1949. According to The Department of Housing and Urban Development written by John B. Willmann, “The Act of 1949 added new prestige to the Housing and Home Finance Agency by authorizing broader public housing activity.” The Housing Act of 1949 also promoted urban redevelopment and research on housing and development problems.
Maryland in (1819), Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824), and Supreme Court vs. Comstock (2010) it brings in the topic of enumerated powers. For the Supreme Court each opinion differed, because one was interpreted with a “few and defined” powers that the Congress can exercise, while the majority opinion Congress has the implied power to criminalize any conduct that might interfere with an enumerated power exercise. Enumerated powers as explained before are powers that are just granted to Congress. In the end they did choose to keep the necessary and proper clause due to the fact that it met all the needs concerning our federal
State agenies and policies are complex to say the least. Unlike federal government the state dose not have the “control over the functioning of theses agencies (Marion & Oliver, 2006 p. 356).” The state however can set policies along with procedures that the law enforcement agency is to follow. The state level is also able to set standards for training, certification along with recertification all of these local law enforcement is required to follow what the state sets. The state also is a go between so to speak for the local and federal agencies. If there are grants for instance it may be given to the state and then the state will pass it on to the local agenicies.
Leaving states to find ways to protect their citizen’s 4th amendment as they try to control criminal activities in their jurisdictions proved to be a failure. Hence, in Mapp v. Ohio case in 1961, the Court applied the
Roche 's article is the only reading that addresses the Three-Fifths Compromise at length. This suggests that while he saw this compromise as important, other authors might not have shared the same viewpoint. In comparison, Estes only mentions it briefly before an in-depth examination of the Connecticut Compromise, despite the fact that both had important consequences on the Electoral College at the time. The Three-Fifths Compromise stipulated that for purposes of legislative representation and taxes, three-fifths of each slave would be counted toward a state 's population. It also provided the South with additional votes in presidential elections.
The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia was a secret meeting that took place between May and September of 1787. The reason of this meeting was to revise the Articles of Confederation. As well the problem from the Revolutionary War debt. The president of this convention was George Washington. Fifty four
The Philadelphia Police Department today is the fourth largest police department in the nation. The Philadelphia Police Department has had over 7,100 sworn and civilian members. The Police Department is now divided into six regional divisions, each being subdivided into twenty-one patrol districts. The Philadelphia Police Department currently is broken up into many specialty divisions, which, together, handle the cases of over 1.5 million citizens of the city of
In “Letter Sent from Philadelphia”, I particularly reveled in the fact that the politicians were only serving for the good of the community for a year’s period and then return home to tend to their personal affairs. William Penn and the twelve justices would be a sight for our
In the Court’s highly fragmented decision, the justices attempted to define a proper balance of and boundary between federal and state authority: by arguing that state action constituted only those acts sanctioned by the state’s laws and by dismissing Section 20 for vagueness, the major block of dissenters suggested that the risk posed to state autonomy by federal intervention was too great; by recognizing the defendants’ actions as those perpetrated “under color of law” and by creating a “willful” test for acts under Section 20, the majority Opinion affirmed the federal government’s interest in protecting the rights of citizens from abuse by state authority, but provided it with a tenuous means for defending those liberties.
The state overriding any policy that they disagree with on a regular basis could lead to problems when considering political bias; e.g., Texas is usually a republican state, but many of the metropolitan cities vote democratic. A disagreement with policy could simply be the state trying to control their own political agenda. The states should be able to step in whenever the cities policies get extreme and begin to push boundaries, but controlling every policy basically defeats the purpose of home rule. The state governments are accustomed to reviewing large scale policies so, in some cases, the cities do not need a large-scale perspective. There seems to be more harm than good that comes with a strong state
Mapp v. Ohio, was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well, as had previously been the law, as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in this case this involved the incorporation of the provisions, as construed by the Court, of the Fourth Amendment which are literally applicable only to actions of the federal government into the Fourteenth Amendment due process clause which is literally applicable to actions of the states. On May 23, 1957, police officers in a Cleveland, Ohio suburb received information that a suspect in a bombing case, as well as some illegal betting equipment, might be found in the home of Dollree Mapp. Three officers went to the home and asked for permission to enter, but Mapp refused to admit them without a search warrant. Two officers left, and one remained. Three hours later, the two returned with several other officers. Brandishing a piece of paper, they broke in
Numerous police agency’s and police officials work on a distinctive local, state, and federal level and role. It has its individual area, sectors, and function, and work according to local streets parts inside policing. In order for any local, state, and federal police division to work successfully it must hire chiefs, deputy’s, and sheriffs who retain leadership and who uses creative thinking skills to teach comprehensive, and aggressive instruction to make the police division a tougher department by holding all its workers tasks for doing his or her job according to its agency’s guidelines and procedures known as code of conduct. “Municipal police work for municipalities such as towns or cities, county police and deputy sheriffs work for counties, state police work for states, and federal police work for the federal government. Some have the same duties as one another or very similar duties, and some have different or additional duties. Their jurisdiction is sometimes the main difference. For example, a municipal police officer normally has primary
INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS AND THE LEGALITY OF CANNABIS 6 costs and shrink the size of the federal government. One argument against this is that Nixon, the creator of new federalism, actually implemented the most severe federal drug policies in the history of the United States. That being said, if the true purpose and intent was
City or Local Police patrol within city limits and they follow city ordinances as well as county mandates. City police may have specialized units such as S.W.A.T., Mounted Unit, Air Support Division, Art Theft Detail, K-9 Unit, ACTF, Gang and Narcotics Division, Motors and Commercial Enforcement. County Sheriff patrols the unincorporated areas within a county, enforce county mandates and they also operate the county jails. State Police patrol state highways and maintain building operated by the state. Traditional organizational structures of policing agencies, traditionally respond to crime