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The Cocktail Party Effect

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Throughout everyday life we are bombarded by an overwhelming amount of perceptual information; the cocktail party effect is an example of what’s going about a phenomenon of being able to focus one's auditory attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli (000).
Our information-processing capacity cannot make sense of the constant input from many sources all at once. We have to choose, moment to moment, the information that is meaningful and avoid distraction by irrelevant material, crucial for adaptive behavior. Given the complexity of detection and processing of deviant stimuli, there are several neural process involved that can be measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs represent time-locked voltage fluctuations in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings that are demonstrably sensitive to cognitive events and have been widely adopted to analyze event-related EEGs [8–10]. In particular, this deviance-related processes is presumed to be reflected the target-P3. It is closely related to attentional
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P3 is extracted from ERP signals between 250–500 ms after stimulus onset—the range may vary depending on stimulus modality, task conditions, subject age, etc., [8]. The P3 latency component is considered a direct indicator of a subject’s stimulus evaluation and speed of information processing; thus, it is taken as a metric representing the strength
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