The Effects of Freezing Stress on Lipid Membranes of Select Turfgrasses James R. Underwood Oklahoma State University Author Note James R. Underwood, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University Correspondence concerning this review should be addressed to James Underwood, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74074. Contact: email@example.com Abstract The Effects of Freezing Stress on Lipid Membranes of Select Turfgrasses Introduction The intention of this literature review is to assess the current knowledge regarding freezing tolerance on American buffalograss, bermudagrass, perennial ryegrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass. While papers do not directly address the lipid membranes specifically they look at factors that are known to strengthen lipid membranes and increase their tolerance to freezing stress. Before moving into the literature review section a quick review of freezing damage to lipid membranes to provide the connection of freezing stress to that of lipid membrane damage as mentioned in the papers. Freezing Damage to Lipid Membranes Freezing stress can cause multiple stress and damages to the cell, but what has been best shown Literature Review American Buffalograss A study over two years into American buffalograss (Bouteloua dactyloides) by S. Ball, et al. in 2002 established a correlation between endogenous soluble
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Although Leopold’s love of great expanses of wilderness is readily apparent, his book does not cry out in defense of particular tracts of land about to go under the axe or plow, but rather deals with the minutiae, the details, of often unnoticed plants and animals, all the little things that, in our ignorance, we have left out of our managed acreages but which must be present to add up to balanced ecosystems and a sense of quality and wholeness in the landscape.
The purpose of the experiment was to determine the molar mass of three unknown solutes by measuring the freezing point depression of a solution containing each of the unknowns. When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent is lowered. As a result of the decrease in the vapor pressure, the colligative properties change.
In Thomas Cole’s Essay on American Scenery, the reader is able to appreciate Cole’s predilection and love for the American scenery. It is his belief this scenery is superior to the European scenery, since the latter’s “primitive features of scenery have long since been destroyed or modified … to accommodate the tastes and necessities of a dense population.” However, Cole presents his audience with a gloomy prophecy about America’s future, which he believes will be the same as Europe’s. Still, while acknowledging that industrialization could eventually take over many natural regions, Cole is hopeful that nature will remain victorious, since it will still be predominant. Because of this, he advises the American people to take advantage of
Andrew P Duffin is the author of “Plowed Under: Agriculture and Environment in the Palouse.” He was born in Los Angeles, California, however he was raised in a rural area known as “Maine.” His vast interest in agriculture and environment was due to his road trips in the country side with his parents at a young age. He graduated from Washington State University and chose to study in regards to Palouse as he was pursuing his degree.
The NCCP is designed to allow Orange County and participating counties the opportunity to develop plans for saving what remains of the CSS among the existing development. In this process counties are asked to account for future urban and farming development. Stakeholder participation is important in this process for obtaining input from various sectors of the community. Businesses and cities can come forward with plans for future expansion and development, managers of habitat can come forward with goals and limitations of the habitat and scientists can come forward with recommendations for size and structure of habitat and ideas for restoration to enhance corridors between habitat.
Iowa was once a great vastness of prairie. Plants that had deep roots and were able to withstand anything that the wild Iowa climate, and they are able to thrive in it. Now, there are very few prairies left and these native plants have been pushed to the near brink of extinction. These native plant face a great other barriers from repopulating our urban landscape because of limitations of heights and types of rules and ordinances that inadvertently preventing yards and other large part of property from being planted into native plants. The entire metro community can benefit from allowing more native plants to become lawns and even larger gardens.
A unique challenge to this project was its timeframe. With only a 10-week window to completion, there was no room for error. The 38,000-square foot site was amended with new soil and over 26,000 square feet of sod was installed. Equipment structure, surge tank, hardscape paving, and lighting was also added. Site amenities like restrooms, outdoor showers, shade structures, for attentive parents, as well as a landscaped picnic area with fountains
Some aspects of Abigail Nguyen's design reference back to several great landscapes of history, such as Ancient Persia's Pasargadae or the Roman peristyle gardens. However, Ms. Nguyen does not just haphazardly imitate any forms and concepts that characterize these great landscapes. Instead, she thoughtfully considers how to properly translate them into a contemporary garden and therefore, chooses features that are appropriate to contemporary life. This demonstrates that Abigail Nguyen is not only a good designer, but well educated in her landscaping field.
Munro grew up in town of Wingham in southern Ontario. She remembers the days when she was young and the town was full of nature and beautiful sites to view. When she went to British Colombia she longed for Ontario landscape. After fifteen years when she came back to Ontario the land had changed .she looked around to see any beautiful landscape and found none. Most land had been used to build schools and hospital. People had fenced their lands and trespassing was not allowed. She couldn’t cut through lands without owner’s permission as before. The river and streams that had clean water for animals to drink and humans to swim, had been choked with various kinds of algae and water plants over stimulated by fertilizers flowing from the fields.
Ahead in his time, Frank Lloyd Wright, set the standard in architect design high when he designed “The Fallingwater House” in 1938. “Voted the most significant building in the last 125 years,” (The Falling Water House) the Fallingwater House is set in the Laurel Highlands of south western Pennsylvania, has become notoriously known for being designed in of our past while demonstrating what the future can hold. For years’ people have built homes near water, next to a water supply source, but never on top of it. However, one man dared to defy the odds and think outside the box, by building an aesthetically pleasing, picturesque, organic following home on top of a waterfall, in order to be “seamless with nature.”
Processed that shaped the landscape: 1. What processes that shape the landscape continuously take place? 2. Will the earth’s surface look the same in the future as it looks today? 3.
Boron added to the extender had no negative effect on the post-thaw motility values and also increases progressive motility. With respect to all the extenders spermatozoa motility values being higher than the control group, it can be concluded that this could have positive effects on fertility (Tirpan and Tekin, 2015). Sodium pentaborate may have provided intracellular energy requirements especially in freezing and thawing processes. The high motility ratios without the usage of glucose, which plays an important role in the foreseen energy mechanisms, give rise to the thought that boron may be used as an energy source for post-thaw process. Boron added to the extender had no negative effect on the post-thaw motility values and increases progressive motility. It can be concluded that different amounts of sodium pentaborate added to
The reserve is surrounded by highly modified landscapes dominated by intensive agricultural and horticultural land use. Common land use for surrounding areas include the growing of cereal crops, grapes and citrus (DOC Gray's Bush. n.d).