Ancient River Valley Civilizations The first four ancient river civilizations all developed in a similar, complex manner and left behind many accomplishments with great influence on following civilizations. While all four has expected differences in culture and language, there are some core similarities that they all share. In order to maintain a
The river valley civilizations developed writing systems. Each writing system was unique, but they also had similarities between them. The people from Mesopotamia had a writing system called “cuneiform.” The Egyptians had a writing system called “hieroglyphics.” Cuneiform was a writing system based on pictures (3.) Just like cuneiform, hieroglyphics was also based on pictures (11.) Both writing systems presented objects or ideas. Also, they were both carved into stone.
In Ancient China, they developed a writing system for preservation. In China, people would use logograms, which are symbols that represent a word or a meaning.In the early days of the ancient Chinese civilization, people would write on oracle bone or tortoise shell.In Ancient India, writing systems were developed for recording data and information. The Indus script used signs and words and it was written from right to left. By 1800 BCE, the Indus valley civilizations started to fall and writing were often used anymore. Ancient Egyptians started to developed a writing system called, hieroglyphics because they needed a way to record important information. They believed that recording data and communicate information about government and religion was essential. Scribes were only ones to write in hieroglyphics and were written from left to right or top to bottom. In Mesopotamia, people started developing a writing system to information. Mesopotamia created a writing system called, cuneiform. Mesopotamian scribes would record important dates and event, and position of the stars. These ancient civilizations started to create their own writing system to record history and communicate information.
Writings may have been introduced from Mesopotamia, and played a major role for inspiration; yet, there were differences in characters and material. The description, “developed” form could be explained as the Egyptian writing was able to describe every spoken language into a written language, even though it was not an alphabetical system. Ancient Egyptian language had several forms and developed as time passed by: Old Egyptian (2650-2135BC), Middle Egyptian (2000-1750BC), Late Egyptian (1550-700), Demotic (600BC-AD500), Coptic (AD300-present), and Greek (332-30BC). In fact, as the Coptic Church still uses the Coptic for liturgical languages, the Egyptian language can be said that it is used for more than 5,000 years, which is longer than any other languages. In addition, there were Hieroglyphs, which were sacred carvings of the words of God. It was used shortly before 3100BC to 40AD and was used for carving on walls and stones. Hieratic was a writing that was used instead of Hieroglyphs when wring on Papyrus, and indeed, it was made to make writing letters easier for priests and scribes. Demotic was a more simple writing system than previous ones, which was used widely by ordinary people. However, Coptic was used by only ruling elites, which described Ancient Egyptian with Ancient Greek. Indeed, the archeological material and pictorial evidence from Egypt shows that the writing were mainly monumental and centered on the ruling group, religion, and on the symbols of Egypt as a single polity . This explains a clear comparison in the usage of the written system of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations, which further can be interpreted within its politics as the Egyptian had a more centralized ruling
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a captivating and intricate civilization. Over the years, historians have found it easier to study this civilization, rather than other historical civilizations, because the Egyptians went through great lengths to record their history. Besides being decent record keepers, they were very religious, and “ahead of their time,” due to their technological and economic breakthroughs. Because of the aspects of this culture, it has to be one of the greatest civilizations of the world.
Ancient Egyptians developed a writing system based on pictures, known as hieroglyphics. The difference between cuneiform and hieroglyphics was hieroglyphics stood not only for ideas or objects, but also sounds. According to document four, Egyptians also created papyrus, the first paper, in order to keep records.
In Ancient times written languages had been some of the tools that they used to communicate. “The designation ‘hieroglyphics’ is a Greek word; the Egyptians referred to their writing as medu-netjer ‘the god’s words’, as they believed writing had been given to them by the great god Thoth” (Mark). The Egyptians believed that hieroglyphics were given to them as a special gifts from their god. Another thing is that they used hieroglyphics to represent their
Over the last several thousand years, dozens of great civilizations have risen from nothing and fallen back into obscurity. Not all civilizations, however, leave a lasting mark on the world, especially not one so profound that influences the world as it exists today. One such civilization that has had a profound impact on daily modern lives was that of Ancient Egypt. Their systems of religion and technological innovation helped not only to leave a permanent impression on the world, but also served to mold both the civilizations that directly followed it as well as society today.
Religion and Society of Ancient Egypt The Old Kingdom is sometimes described as the “golden age” of Egypt, and as an ideal that the Middle Kingdom tried to emulate, while New Kingdom pharaohs looked to both earlier dynastic eras for inspiration.
Mesopotamia and Egypt developed advanced systems of writing, starting with simple pictographs and move to advanced letters. Mesopotamian writing began as a wedge-shaped characters, a system that is called cuneiform. Egypt originally used hieroglyphics.
One of the many differences Mesopotamia and Egypt differ in is their writing systems. Ancient Egypt used Hieroglyphics that is based on pictures which expressed ideas and was widely used in businesses because not all the people were literate. This writing can be used to spell out words by sound. In Mesopotamia the Sumerians invented cuneiform, which was most widely used and was written on clay tablets which were left in the sun to dry. This way the tablets would last a long time, although it wasn’t the most effective to use for simple messages.which will affect later on how they communicate. WIth it However great literature was produced to show works such as the "Epic of Gilgamesh” known as the earliest story we know of.
The egyptians have many achievements from a calendar to algebra. The most fascinating is their writing system. The writing
writing is the physical manifestation of a spoken language. It is thought that human beings developed language c. 35,000 BCE as evidenced by cave paintings from the period of the Cro-Magnon Man (c. 50,000-30,000 BCE) which appear to express concepts concerning daily life. These images suggest a language because, in some instances, they seem to tell a story (say, of a hunting expedition in which specific events occurred) rather than being simply pictures of animals and people. Written language, however, does not emerge until its invention in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia, c. 3500 -3000 BCE. This early writing was called cuneiform and consisted of making specific marks in wet clay with a reed implement. The writing system of the Egyptians was already in use before the rise of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150 BCE) and is thought to have developed from Mesopotamian cuneiform (though this theory is disputed) and came to be known as heiroglyphics.
To begin, Egypt and China had different natural resources, so they developed different cultures and religions. For example, Egypt had access to papyrus which is a reed which can be used to produce to make paperlike things for writing. With plentiful supplies of papyrus, Egyptians were able to use hieroglyphics, which were picture symbols that represented words, and to develop a cursive symbol-form of writing. Egyptians used writing for recordkeeping, poetry, religious hymns, instruction manuals, and stories. However, in China, they had access to cattle and turtles; they used oracle bones, the shoulder bones of cattle and the bottom shells of turtles, to inscribe symbols into. In the Shang writing system, they had several hundred characters which signified a one-syllable word for an object or idea. The Chinese wrote about the king, and other parts of the Shang society. The Chinese and Egyptians developed different writing systems because Egypt had access to papyrus whereas China had supplies of animal bones. Furthermore, the Chinese also used the oracle bones for religion. Interpreters “read” the cracks in the bones which were answers given to the people from their ancestors. Then, these answers were inscribed into the oracle bones. Since the Chinese had access to these oracle bones, their religion mainly centered around divination, which is communicating with ancestors and ancient spirits. In
Egypt was a complex civilization because it had all of the important civilization indicators. Egypt was a smart resourceful they had strong beliefs. Under the rule of the Pharaoh, they build an empire and even now a thousand year later it is still one of the greatest civilization in history.