The first determinant of health related to African American female population in the 19132 zip code pertains to policies. Polices for this population include providing access to health care, HIV testing and syringe services programs. The Office of HIV Planning in Philadelphia focuses on the needs of the population, conducts community outreaches and educational sessions. As previously stated, 32 state Medicaid programs reimburse for routine HIV screening of adults aged 15-65 years, regardless of risk. This policy allows for individuals to more likely participate in this screening process. HIV testing can be done through health care professionals offices or clinics. Other programs such as AIDS Fund and AVERTing HIV and AIDS provide information on locations on where testing can be done. AVERTing HIV and AIDS also provides information on Needle and Syringe Programs that are available in the community.
Next, a major factor that targets African American females who are at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS includes societal norms, culture and values. Unfortunately, a stigma associated with HIV includes being viewed as participating in a shameful manner. Being HIV positive is also associated with the belief of bad behaviors and poor decision-making. Also being labeled as an individual who engages in a lot of sexual activity and drug abuse. In addition, women hold a lower status in society than men. Men are more likely to have views of being above their partner or women in
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The AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, consisted entirely of deaths, illnesses and most of all fear, changing the way society viewed gay men. Being that it was only happening to homosexuals and everyone became super homophobic and believed that the disease was a cause of being gay until it started happening to women too. This affected the entire medical metaphysics in society on what is considered safe methods of having sex and health precautions as well. Before the 1980s hit HIV was thought to originate form Kinshasa which is in Congo. In the 1920 HIV crossed between chimpanzees to humans on the Democratic Republic of humans.(Avert 1). AIDS is caused by HIV and is the last stage of HIV and can lead to death. It attacks every single
According to recent statistics from the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 1.2 million individuals in the United States have HIV (about 14 percent of which are unaware of their infection and another 1.1 million have progressed to AIDS. Over the past decade, the number of HIV cases in the US has increased, however, the annual number of cases remains stable at about 50, 000 new cases per year. Within these estimates, certain groups tend to carry the burden of these disease, particularly the gay, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and among race/ethnic groups, Blacks/African American males remain disproportionately affected. (CDC)
Although, (NIH, 2007) reports that condoms have reduce HIV Transmission by 87-95 percent. To get these African American male students from seeing it to exploring condom use as an option or a benefit is contemplation. However, a Condom Education Program is placed an inner city high school, whose population is 65 percent Afro-American male. NIH reported data is the goal of the program. The objective is by the end of the year, 45% of Afro American sexual active males are
It is important to also note that the staff does not discriminate based on race, sex or gender. Their mission is to offer many services to individuals within the community to create a “stigma free” community. There are numerous services that are offered by S.A.A.F. S.A.A.F. offers HIV testing services on a community and individual level; those include community presentations, prevention programs, peer counselors and even weekly support groups for HIV/AIDS patients or their families to attend. S.A.A.F Services also include Case management, Complementary therapies, medication assistance and access to substance abuse treatment7. As a way to target the part of the HIV/AIDS population who cannot provide these services for themselves. S.A.A.F offers transportation, food assistance, and housing assistance to those who are
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) along with other sexually transmitted infections (STI) have emerged as a health epidemic over the recent decades and continue to threaten the lives of people today. In order to better understand the virus and other STIs, in terms of the populations they affect, it is important to observe the diverse risk factors among different genders and ethnicities that are HIV positive. One vital consideration for a study of this nature is the difference in HIV-positive care provided between genders. By examining the disparities that exist within STI treatment across the variables of gender and ethnicity, information for various people of age, gender and race have more viable information to use. Therefore, careful examination of the trends in equity (or lack thereof) across education programs and care for different gender and ethnicity groups, can lead to important changes that can be made for better health treatment of all people. However, not all groups of people can be treated entirely equally. For example, risk factors for transmission of HIV have been known to shift according to gender trends and remain higher for some ethnic groups than others. Effective public health interventions will need to combat overt discrimination in treatment while balancing the influence of known trends across these two broad variables in order to manage a positive output for clients.
Angels in America ambitiously covers themes varying from politics and justice, love and abandonment, to homosexuality and religion. There are undoubtedly too many issues to thoroughly analyze each and every one, but disease and destruction stand out: specifically the representation of AIDS and its affects on the individual acceptance and defining of sexuality, as well as, society’s perspectives. Angels in America is an accurate, honest portrayal of the slow deterioration of the human body, the soul’s acceptance of mortality, and the reality of AIDS in a society that is not quite ready to be mentally open to tolerance. Kushner’s Angels in America is a realistic portrayal of the rise and conquer of the AIDS epidemic in the United States: the heft of social stigma aligns with the historical perspective of the unknown during the mid-1980s.
When you are asked if AIDS is still a crisis in America “it does depend on who you are”, As stated by Sarah Schulman in the article “Is There Still an AIDS Crisis in the U.S? It Depends on Who You Are”. “If you are the type of person that is able to afford all of the treatments and are able to live a lifestyle of tolerating a lot of awful side effects”. If you are the type of person that can not afford all the of treatments, then you are in a crisis. The perception of AIDS as a “gay disease” limited the efforts to combats the disease. It limited the efforts because people did not want to do anything or engage with anything that had to do with the issue. And as stated in our text books, by 2000 AIDS had claimed almost 300,000 American lives.
Patient Zero was first diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma, a form of skin cancer common to AIDS victims, in June 1980 (The Appalling Saga of Patient Zero). The first recognition of AIDS came in 1981 with an outbreak in homosexual men in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. Patients were suffering a breakdown in the body's natural defenses that often leads to fatal forms of cancer and lethal bouts of infections. Patient Zero had traveled extensively around the world getting sexual partners in every country he went to. When he was diagnosed, he was warned that he would be putting partners at risk if continuing to have sexual activity, but he still continued in the same pattern, which spread the disease directly and indirectly until he died in 1984.
The beginning of the AIDS epidemic started in 1981 when the first case of an unknown disease was publically announced. Since its publication the human immunodeficiency virus and its autoimmune deficiency syndrome have sparked many concerns, medically, ethically, and socially. The following documentary and films expressed awareness to the public, they are:
The Human evolution would not have been complete without science, life forms, cars, fantasy, skydiving or the niches microorganisms call home would still be a mystery, Infection and diseases would not be easy to diagnose, and research work will neither improve until man decided to take a stand and make a change. Where and how would a Disease with so much Power shut down our immune system and leave us like walking corpse, this kind of Disease was either sent down as a spell or from the hands of unclean people this would be questions that would basically cause a whole community to drink hot tea in the dead of the night from roots and shrubs to cure an infected person of a disease undiagnosed as Hiv but with fevers symptoms
The United States is trying to eliminate health disparities by expanding access to health care for vulnerable populations. The CDC has made efforts to the solutions to eliminate the HIV health disparity. The following are priorities for future action: “1) enhancing and improving partnerships; 2) increasing screening and testing for diseases in populations with known health disparities; 3) adopting an integrated service model to improve health care delivery; 4) improving monitoring through the enhancement of current data systems and the development of new systems; and 5) adopting new diagnostic, treatment, and prevention technologies” (Steele, 2007, p. 7). In 2006 the CDC released Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of adults, adolescents,
Many studies has revealed that children are not receiving information about sexuality and sexual behavior from their parents, do not have the availability of physicians to counsel adolescents and adult patients on measures to prevent STDs (primarily HIV), especially if they are treated once for infections in lower-income communities. There are other factors and measures that have been issued by a number of organizations that explain why African Americans and where they live makes them more susceptible to HIV infection and AIDS.
When the AIDS epidemic first exploded, the majority of the general public chose to ignore the disease due to the fact that it mainly struck the LGBT population. It was up to members of the LGBT community to spread awareness not only on how to prevent the illness, but about the very existence of AIDs itself. Unfortunately, access to such information was stalled due to the lack of available methods of communication, leaving LGBT people as unsuspecting victims even to this day. The development of the internet has led to the advancement in communication and information transference – improved traits that have played an important role in the growth and awareness of the present LGBT community. If the community had such methods of communication when
HIV originated in Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo around 1920, when HIV crossed species from chimpanzees to humans. HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, if you are infected with HIV, your body will try to fight the infection with special molecules called “antibodies.” Being HIV-positive is not the same as having AIDS, stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Acquired means you can get infected with it; Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body’s system that fights diseases; Syndrome means a group of health problems that make up a disease. You don’t just “get” AIDS, you may be infected
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which with time will lead to AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV/AIDS is the most destructive health crisis of modern times. (“How HIV and AIDS Affect Populations”) This virus came from chimpanzees who had SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus), which was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV. (“What is HIV/AIDS?”) HIV enters the bloodstream through mucous membranes. HIV can enter through the lining of the rectum, walls of the vagina, and the urethra, which is the passageway to the penis. HIV can also enter through the nose, mouth, and throat. (“Having HIV-AIDS is Like a Death Sentence”)