The Failure of the Qing Dynasty
Although some short term successes were achieved for China when dealing with western demands of diplomatic relations and free trade, in the sense that it retained their pride in their tributary systems, such responses were in flawed in the long term. Focusing on the time period 1793-1839, this essay will investigate what were the western attempts and demands in diplomatic relations and free trade. It will also investigate what was the reason to the failure of the Qing dynasty to respond effectively to western demands of diplomatic relations and free trade. The two aspects will be explored respectively. It will be argued that the Qing government’s failures in …show more content…
More friction could be seen between the West and China with Amherst’s reluctance in conforming the kowtow ritual. Emperor Jaiqing viewed such act as an insult to the Middle Kingdom due to British pride and arrogance, and added that no more attempts need be made to send mission to Beijing. The Chinese emperor was further humiliated by Napier’s breaking of five important regulations: did not apply for permission to go to Guangzhou, had no customs permit to reside in the Guangzhou factory, sent his communication to the viceroy not as humble “petition” from an inferior to a superior but as a “letter” to an equal, the letter was in Chinese not in English, and he tried to get the letter delivered directly and not through the Cohong merchants.
It was a failure for the Qing in the long term for it aroused Western grievances in the Chinese system. Such view was supported by the historian Vohra, for he argued that incidents like the Emily incident although showed Westerners were willing to cope with such inferior treatment, they felt deeply humiliated, which gave rise to waging wars at a latter period (i.e. the Opium War).
The failure for the Chinese government to respond effectively was because of its construct that China was superior over all other powers. The Chinese ruler, “the Son of Heaven”, was considered the ruler of all humankind, all other
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The Han dynasty collapsed in 220 CE bringing with it a great deal of destruction. Buddhism, which was founded in India in the 6th century BCE, made its way to China in the first century. As it traveled it gained many followers and popularity, especially with the lower classes of the Chinese Dynasties because they were greatly disrespected. Buddhism rejected the idea of the social classes thus appealing to the impoverished. Many people accepted Buddhism, however some used it as the basis for many political and social injustices. Furthermore, a group of people remained indifferent and tried to unite the two groups.
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Qin Shi Huangdi, the first Qin emperor, was a proactive and ambitious emperor who implemented a central bureaucratic system that oversaw the evolution and unification of China at the cost of public sentiment. The Qin Dynasty is considered among the most influential dynasties as it laid the foundation for the massive cultural and economic development of China that took place during the Han Dynasty, but it also failed to achieve many of its pro-commoner ideological goals. In fact, socioeconomic disparity was not alleviated and despite the notion of enriching the lives of the common people, it was under Qin rule in which public resentment of the authoritarian government peaked as there were countless peasant revolts against the iron-handed bureaucratic rule of China. Because a paranoid emperor alone wielded political clout and influence, the tumultuous few years of Qin reign was rife with paranoia and suspicion among the masses. Although the Qin Dynasty is seldom thought as possessing the same glaring discrepancy between ideology and state that the Communist regime in post-World War II China had despite the similarities, the failure of the flawless egalitarian state models in socioeconomic and political aspects during the Qin Dynasty mirrored the developments in early Communist China.
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Between the years of 1646 to 1912, the Qing Dynasty proclaimed the longest ruling dynasty in China. Over the 275 years of ruling China, the inevitable fall of the Qing Dynasty is still debated by historians. From key contributing factors such as internal crisis, inability to adequately cope with foreign powers and incompetent rulers who were unable to rise from old tradition led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty.
There are ancient accounts about the history of a small kingdom along the Yellow River that existed from about 2,000 BC to 1,600 BC. The main ancient accounts are in the Records of the Grand Historian (史記) that were written between about 109 BC and 91 BC by Sima Qian and another textthat is called the Bamboo Annals (竹書紀年) that was a text that was said to have been buried with the King of Wei who died in 296 BC and was rediscovered in 281 AD during the Jin Dynasty. The text was written on flat pieces of bamboo, and this is why it is called the Bamboo Annals. Are these accounts accurate? It is said that the Xia Dynasty people didn't keep written records, but that their histories were passed orally. Archeologists
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