In the late nineteenth century the European powers of the world began imperializing Africa. This annexation, occupation, and division of African territory has since led to much strife within the continent and has caused many struggles politically. This period known as the “Scramble for Africa” has led to the many problems that Africa faces today and has been the root of several wars in Africa to assume control. After World War II many European imperialists began to give African nations autonomy. This seemed like a step forward for African nations, but without any plan to transition into self governance many African nations have faced bloody civil wars and corruption. Along with political struggles, numerous African nations face rising debt and other economic problems. Many of these political and economic issues stem from the “Scramble for Africa”. Once the European countries left Africa had very little to support itself. To explain the issues left by imperialism the three African nations of Rwanda, South Africa, and Sierra Leone will be put under the scope.
While analyzing the North Africa conflict, a combination of service capabilities would be required to achieve the desired end state of deterring and if necessary, the defeat of Algerian guerilla aggression to prevent regional and global destabilization. Taking into account the current military landscape that exists today, a joint task force (JTF) would be the ideal military response of the United States and collation partner’s while utilizing the regional military assets. Intelligence suggests guerilla forces are capable of a full scale offensive into Morocco in less than 36 hour notice, bringing the factors of time, force and space into consideration.
Little things in life can impact the world in many ways whether it's good or bad. In this case right now the Democratic Republic of the Congo is facing a big conflict with these minerals. The type of minerals people are fighting for are mined from the floor tantalum, tungsten, tin, and gold are the one that they're looking for. This is a big deal because the mineral trade has been linked to other crimes that rebel groups who commit mass atrocities, including rape and murder. It may not seem like a big deal but numbers don't lie , but you'll be surprised what they use these minerals for. They use these minerals to make phones,laptops(which I'm using right now so ironic right), light bulbs , a pair of earrings you name it. We are preventing
Sub-Saharan Africa’s colonial past has led to ethnic conflict, social problems, and economic problems during the present day. Let me start out saying that you can’t start a revolution without some kickback of the people’s opinions. The transition wasn't smoothly for the two countries I researched, The Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Sudan. These two country's colonial leaders did not do a good job of setting up these countries. If they hadn’t set up the enslavement of the people living there, the nations might’ve been a little better off. Another event that led to the ethnic conflicts going on today was the leaders gave the people independence but it wasn't given fully, North Sudanese were
This war was very tragic on so many levels is unbelievable. The war lasted for years as more than 5 million soldiers died. This place is very poor and one of the most hopeless country out there. It's crazy how it used to be one of the most wealthiest country out there in Saharan Africa. They had another election as Mr. Kabila was back to power like he was before and nothing changed. All the government has done was shrug as he found out about rape story. He would help he claims but there's too much time on his hands he says.
Instead of caring for the welfare of the country, the war for independence was quickly followed by a power struggle, especially after the involvement of UNITA. If it was not enough to have different leadership styles among the three fronts, they were also based on different ethnic roots and different political leadership styles. The support for the three fronts will then differ within the ethnic groups in Angola. Hence, the Angolan civil war also symbolizes the struggle between the different major political units mentioned above. Without a proper authority to govern Angola, hardly any regulations were implemented and order was barely maintained within the
Following the European countries notion of the scramble for Africa; the events that occurred in DRC during the 1990’s include the civil wars characterised by genocide and the conflicts between the Rwandans, Burundians, Ugandans and the Congolese which were rather awful and created a distorted images of the state and its citizens Dunn (2001). The political conflicts began as early as the 1960’s which witnessed the external regional division emerged particularly between Rwanda and Uganda (Dunn, 2001). The regimes formed by these regions were intended to overthrow the dictatorship by Mobuto Sese Seko on Congo who renamed it to Zaire. Kabila the late president of Congo who ruled for about three years before he was brutally assassinated in 2001 was part of this agenda.
In this essay I will be giving the definition of war and conflict and I will be describing the causes of war and giving examples of wars that have happened because of the conflicts that I will be mentioning in my essay. The causes of war I will be looking at will be; Politics, Nationalism, Ideology, Land, resources, historical rivalry, ethnic conflict and religion. These are the main causes of war.
The African continent has been, and continues to be engulfed in one conflict after another. Over the last 40 years, nearly 20 African countries, or about 40% of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have experienced at least one period of civil war (Elbadawi & Sambanis, 2000). They further estimate that 20% of SSA's
The Angola conflict was a civil war that was located in the South African state of Angola. This 27 year long civil war, that killed an estimated 800,000 people and displace 4 million people, broke out on 11 November 1975, right after the Portuguese colonial rule, and ended in 2002. Similar to many other post colonial states, Angola suffered both social and economical struggles which lead to a power struggle between three predominant liberation movements. It is important for us to study this civil war as we can learn many lessons from this major event in history, and make use of the information gathered from this to help us understand how these similar conflicts have started off and have developed to this state. Hence I would be analysing
With the number of deaths being over 500,000 (Shillington,2005), the Angolan Civil War only ended in 2002, after struggling for 27 years ever since obtaining independence from Portugal. The Angolan Civil War began in Angola after the end of the war for independence from Portugal in 1975. The war featured conflict between two primary Angolan factions, the Communist MPLA and the anti-Communist UNITA. There are several causes of this war, such as the power vacuum, resource fighting and ethnic tensions. Hence, in this essay, I hope to analyze these causes and afterwards decide which cause play the most critical role in the civil war.
The effects of conflicts in terms of refugee flows into neighbouring countries and the emergence of internally displaced persons (IDPs) has demonstrated that no African country is an island unto itself . Refugee camps in the Mano River Union region of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone have served as source of instability for countries in the region. It is estimated that there are close to three million refugees in central Africa alone. The camps in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from the Rwandan genocide of 1994, remain a source of concern for all the key actors involved in the Great Lakes region. 200,000 refugees have spilled into Chad as a result of the violent conflict in Sudan’s Darfur region, creating tension along the border. Dadaab(Kenya) hosts people that have fled various conflicts in the larger Eastern Africa region. Most have come as a consequence of the civil war in southern Somalia, including both Somalis and members of Somalia's various ethnic minority groups such as the Bantu. These situations illustrate the need for effective post-conflict reconstruction processes and the institutions to back them up. IDPs and refugees make it difficult for host communities and displaced communities to settle down and initiate development. Therefore, a central pillar of post-conflict reconstruction is the incorporation of IDPs and refugees into the host community or the repatriation of refugees, after consideration of possible
Of course, fighting in West Africa during the 1990s was not confined to the MRU states. Serious bloodshed occurred in Guinea-Bissau (1999), the southern Casamance region of Senegal (ongoing), and Nigeria (ongoing) and conflict threatens to engulf c?te d'Ivoire. Sometimes referred to as "the arc of conflict" in West Africa, these wars escape simple classification. While the war that started in 1989 in Liberia has become regionalized in the rest of the MRU, the other areas of instability in West Africa are based on intra-state phenomena. Nevertheless, the broader and deeper that instability grows in West Africa, the greater the risk that conflicts will merge and spread, further
Since its formation in 2001, the constitutive act of the AU has taken normative and constitutional steps towards the realization of a strong and effective political, economic and judicial organization for the continent . The ideals that led to the creation of the AU 's predecessor, the OAU proceeded from the notion that countries in Africa should unite to fight colonial subjugation as well as improve the lives of their people. Despite these noble ideals, it took a few wars, these are; Western Sahara (involving Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, and France), the Shaba rebellions( the attempted invasions of Zaire), the invasion of Benin, and the Ogaden war against Somalia to show the weaknesses and disunited front of the OAU following its failure to respond to the emerging conflict situations.
The constant drumbeat of headlines about Darfur, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Somalia, Liberia as well as the other states in Africa that are beleaguered by political instability have made the causes of failed states and intra-state political conflicts a major issue, both academic and practical. The International Day of Peace which was established by a United Nation resolution in 1982, and is marked every year on September 21, is a global event whose activities are significant in highlighting the worldwide efforts towards conflict resolution and peace building. This day is however more relevant to the continent of Africa where most conflicts have taken place, with