The Ideals of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Mao, and Stalin Essay

1674 Words 7 Pages
1. Scientific Socialism

Scientific socialism is the type of socialism that Engels uses to refer to Marx’s analysis of political history. Scientific socialism exams social and economic methods’ using the scientific method and it tries to mimic the hard sciences like chemistry and physics. Scientific socialism is different from utopian socialism because it takes into consideration the historical developments of men while utopian socialism does not. According to Engels when referring to utopian socialist, “To all these, socialism is the expression of absolute truth, reason and justice, and has only to be discovered to conquer all the world by virtue of its own power. And as absolute truth is independent of time, space, and of the
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What the old method failed to do however, was explain how capitalism exploited workers and the exploration began. It just criticized capitalism. Marx’s explanation of socialism answered these questions allowing him to understand the details of capitalism. Since Marx looked at socialism from a scientific perspective, it enabled him to examine capitalism from an historical perspective and its reason for emerging. In addition, it allowed Marx to make a prediction for capitalism, which was its downfall. Also to Engels, Marx was able to determine that the possessing class was able to constantly increase their capital by exploiting the working class because the value of the commodity would exceed the cost of labor. By today’s standards scientific is considered to be something that can form testable explanations and predictions. Therefore, Marx’s scientific socialism by today’s standards is not considered scientific. One reason is that looking at historical developments does not test or disprove any kind of trends. Since countries very in historical development, it is difficult to take socialism, apply it every country, and expect the same outcome and trends. Another reason scientific socialism is no longer considered scientific is because it cannot predict or explain particular outcome of capitalism or socialism. For example, Marx predicted that a capitalist state would eventually emerge into a socialist state and capitalism all together would