Brace, N. (2014) ‘Measuring and manipulating variables’ in McAvoy, J. and Brace, N. (eds) Investigating methods, Milton Keynes, The Open University.
It is important for us to understand the methods used in psychological research so that we can assess the validity of the findings of such researches. First, we will be able to understand how researchers obtain the empirical data that serves as the foundation for their research. Subsequently, we can determine whether these data originate from case studies, surveys, naturalistic observations, or controlled experiments. In the latter case, we could know which variables are controlled and / or manipulated and how the experiments’ environments serve to regulate such conditions. Lastly, taking all these into account, we would be able to make an informed decision on the reliability of the data and the legitimacy of the psychological findings that follows.
In order to build the visibility of our executive in a community awareness program for the local cancer society, she would be used as mediator, team builder and educator. In the role of mediator, her skills could be utilized to help bring about a consensus on particular issues. In the role of team builder, our executives’ skills are used to form a coalition of effective leaders to propel the goals of the cancer society forward. As indicated in the text successful team building helps to shape ethical and practical trust. Trust can greatly contribute to communication effectiveness, in the long run. By utilizing our executive as an educator her strengths are leveraged to contribute to the overall objectives of the local cancer society.
This experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions which contains many values and limitations. Conducting a laboratory experiment allows the experimenter to freely manipulate the independent variable which demonstrates cause and effect relationships. Lab experiments allow for an increased control of extraneous variables and accurate measurement of findings. The standardized procedures also allow for replication to occur. However, total control of variable is impossible. The only participant
al.,2007). Using previously researched scholar articles and books, the authors were able to base their search, follow certain guidelines and compare their results with other results. Using tests such as the Kruskall-Wallis non-parametric test, Nagel et. al.(2007) were able to examine the differences in performance based on each grade group.
One criticism of this research is that it is correlational. Therefore, we cannot infer a causal
Methodological Issues Article Review. Read the following articles, which can be accessed through the ProQuest database in the Ashford University Library:
1. What is the intervention being evaluated? What is the hypothesis for the intervention, and what theories or empirical research is used to support that initial hypothesis?
The direct relationship has become more insignificant with the addition of the mediator variables. Although the researchers saw an almost significant relationship, the mediators indirect path looks significant and the direct path looks insignificant. If we can show that a mediator variable significantly explains a direct path, and a direct path becomes more significant, it fully explains why more condition (X) leads to (Y). The matrix originally determined the direct relationship being equal to P=0.0766, but with the mediators, the direct relationship has a P-value of 0.3211.
Now, it is time to give an overview of some of the design threats to construct validity. If the researcher did not define the construct efficiently than it can lead to the inadequate preoperational explication of constructs threat (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Next, is the mono-operation bias, which is the use of the study program only one time and one place (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Third, the mono-method bias is the use of any one measure or observation (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Finally, the confounding constructs and the levels of constructs threat (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). Overall, this threat to construct validity is a labeling issue like some of the other threats to construct validity (Trochim & Donnelly, 2008). However, there are more design threats than listed in this paper to construct
For any measure to be valuable in psychological research, it needs to be both valid and reliable (Goodwin, 2008: 128). Research is reliable when more researchers have found the same results, or, within for instance behavioural research, when the same behaviour occurs at several measurements (Goodwin, 2008: 124). There are different types of validity. Firstly, there is construct validity, which measures whether an operationalisation of a construct actually measures what it is supposed to measure. Secondly, criterion validity determines whether a certain phenomenon is related to another phenomenon, and can accurately determine future developments. Lastly, content validity determines whether a test measures all aspects of the construct that is being measured (Goodwin, 2008: 125-126).
Interrogating construct validity, how well the variables in the study were manipulated and measured, is also essential when dealing with causal claims (Morling, 2012). Again, because so little information from the methods section was addressed in Bergland's (2014) article, readers cannot validate the construct validly of the study. It would have been
| Based on explicit knowledge and this can be easy and fast to capture and analyse.Results can be generalised to larger populationsCan be repeated – therefore good test re-test reliability and validityStatistical analyses and interpretation are
The sixth patient also belongs to a family and has dreams that are to be achieved. Causing preventable death to such an individual does not only cause pain to the family but it is also an injustice and an unfair way of ending life. It is logical to save five lives by eliminating one but it is morally right to save them all. There are other ways of getting organs for
The objective of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the analysis of the data and present the main findings. It also presents the different tests performed to help choose the appropriate model for the study. The chapter concludes by providing thorough statistical interpretation of the findings.