Student Autonomy and Motivation There are multiple domains to describe children's’ development and growth, including; physical, social, moral, neurological, emotional and cognitive. The level of autonomy and motivation displayed by a student is largely dependent on their developmental stage (Lyons, Ford & Slee, 2014). For example, children of the same age may demonstrate a range of moral reasoning abilities. Therefore, it is my belief that young students require differing levels of guidance to differentiate between right and wrong. This is supported by Kohlberg, who states that some children do not understand social conventions or moral rules (O’Donnell et al, 2016, p 158). I believe that children display complex behaviours that are influenced by a number of factors. This aligns with Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory which documents the extensive and intricate interrelationships existing between children and their various environments (De Nobile, Lyons & Arthur-Kelly, 2017, p 22). I am of the opinion that behaviour can be voluntary and based on conscious decisions, as well as involuntary when children exercise little control over their actions. According to Donnell et al, (2016, p 492) children are motivated by their psychological needs, intrinsic desires, extrinsic forces, positive emotions and achievement standards. I believe that when teachers effectively foster these motivators, students develop their own self efficacy and self regulation. Therefore, I believe
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At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible at this point in moral development, but only if it serves one's own interests. Children at this stage also recognise that there is not just one right answer, individuals have different viewpoints, ones that they have developed for themselves, not the ones they have been told by a “grown-up”. Some may argue that children in this stage sound amoral, e.g. they may say something like “Heinz was right to steal the drug because the druggist was unwilling to make a fair deal;
Middle childhood is a crucial time for moral reasoning, children are beginning to make judgments about certain acts being right or wrong (Woolfolk & Perry, 2015). When my child was eight years old, she wasn’t cheating as often while playing games, but has been lying about what has been happening at school, or blaming her sister for making messes (Pearson, 2014). According to My Virtual Child, “my child is still at the preoperational level of moral development” (Pearson, 2014). Occasionally my child will confess that she has lied, I make sure that I praise my child for telling the truth. During this time, my child seemed to be emotionally stable. She was a happy child and had healthy relationships with her peers.
Children evaluated moral transgressions (e.g. a child throwing water to another child) as more serious offenses as well as more likely to deserve punishment than conventional transgression (e.g. a child not sitting in the designated place during story time) (Smetana, 1981). As people mature, instead of simply making moral judgments based on the consequences of the action (e.g. the boy who accidently broke 15 cups is naughtier than a boy who broke one cup while stealing), people were able to make moral judgments not only by direct consequence but also by motivation and intention behind behavior (e.g. the boy who broke one cup while stealing is naughtier than the boy who accidently broke 15 cups) (Piaget,
As stages in psychological development have been defined by Freud, stages in moral development have been outlined by early educators Jean Piaget and Kohlberg, who put forth differing views on the moral development of children. Piaget theorized that children process morals in stages, first one then the next, with a transition in between. The first stage (from ages 4 to about 7) is referred to as “heteronymous morality”, where children think of rules as constants, that is to say, rules are part of the world’s makeup with no input or possibility of change by people. As children progress from seven to ten years of age, they move from one stage to the next, maintaining some of the traits of the
Children ask countless questions as they mature. Children often turn to their parents for guidance. If a parent is unable or unwilling to answer these questions, a child, left to their own devices, will look for answers from their friends, the internet, and other authority figures. In his article “I Listen to My Parents and I Wonder What They Believe,” Robert Cole explains that children have an inborn desire to build their own morals by questioning authority figures around them, especially their parents. Therefore, A parent’s guidance influences a child’s morals as he/she develops.
| Moral development is limited in the first 2 years and does not really have much bearing. Even if a child had significant moral views/tendencies, they would find it hard to convey these, except maybe for tantrums
In the stage of 12 to 18 years old self-determination and autonomy plays a role in an individual’s life cycle. This is where development is found of what has been done with that person. At this point it has to do with the primarily upon what a person dose with their life. If this means an individual’s has to struggle to be able to discover and find out who they are when having to be deal with negotiating and struggling with social interaction this will bring in their sense of morality and right from wrong skills they have learned. From some
Due to psychological changes, they will struggle with inferiority and will tend to be critical of differences in others. Because of this they must be taught the value of diversity, and the need to respect others. They are also searching for an identity. Education is responsible to help them achieve an ethical perception of themselves. They will experience a developing understanding of existential questions and instances of injustice. Students must be given opportunities to do morally acceptable things and ask and answer moral questions. It is essential that they grow to view themselves as “good people of high moral standing.” (Erb, p. 110)
Pg. #3 “… then it is important to evaluate the influences of children's’ development progression of moral thought and who affects how each children arrives to a moral decision” Should be how each child not children.
When a child is in its early years, it is considered an evil entity for humanity. Wherever they go, catastrophe is bound to happen, whether it would be throw food in the floor at lunch, or drawing all over the drywall in the basement, children are difficult to deal with. However, as they progress through their daily lives, they start becoming more behaved and start to conduct themselves properly. This process does not occur naturally though, kids must learn right from wrong not just in the classroom, but from their own personal experiences. The cycle of learning from peers and from oneself continues throughout one's entire lifetime, because as far as humanity is concerned, our brain has no limit to what we can learn. Teens and other readers
Children in school are rarely questioned with such ferocity, but similar moral and pedagogical concerns arise—with particular urgency, in fact, precisely because they are younger: Should
The United States of America is known for being a country filled with people of many different ethnic backgrounds. Likewise, the student population in schools is just as diverse as it continues to grow. Lynch (2015) notes that schools are expected to teach their students “how to synthesize cultural differences into their knowledge base” as this will help “facilitate students’ personal and professional success in a diverse world” (para. 8). Educators must be able to provide for the diverse needs of students and are expected to equip students with skills that can lead to healthy development as it can affect higher levels of student achievement and students have more opportunities of success in their future. Providing students with tools and skills requires an awareness and acceptance of their ethnic identity. Once students have developed self-acceptance about their ethnic identity, they can begin to feel empowered and motivated to do well. Through cultural empowerment, students of color can develop intrinsic motivation and achieve academic success.
A quite popular idea is that a person's childhood has the greatest influence on their personality and their moral standards. As stated by Patrick Crispen in Criminal Minds, a child's morals are learned and set by the age of ten years old (67). Also stated in Criminal Minds, is the assumption that a sixth-grade teacher could look at a class of students and determine who will be successful, who will be a "trouble-maker", and so forth (70). This is a deeper example of how
There are several theories that focus on a child’s development. One is Elliot Turiel’s moral domain theory which states that there is a difference between how a child develops moral reasoning. Those differences rely in the concept of mortality and social convention while having experiences in their social communities. According to the video “A Child's Mind: How Kids Learn Right & Wrong”, Albert Bandura’s theory of moral development states that social learning occurs through observation or direct instruction. He also uses rewards and punishments to introduce reinforcements.
Children develop their ability to think and act morally through several stages. If they fail to reach the conventional stage, in which adolescents realize that their parents and society have rules that should be followed because they are morally right to follow, they might well engage in harmful behavior. Whereas boys tend to use formal rules to decide what is right or wrong, girls tend to take personal relationships into account.