The Modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Essay

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Introduction
The modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was established by the King Abdulaziz bin Abdelrahman Al-Saud in 1932 (Al-Turaiqi, 2008; Albassam, 2011; BTI, 2012; Hamzawy, 2006; Peterson, 1984; UN, 2004). Saudi is a big country with 13 provinces (mintaqah) and 1,600, 000 km2 (Albassam, 2011; UN, 2004). Saudi has the largest reserves of oil in the world (UN, 2004). The political system in Saudi is Monarchy since the day of Unification of the Kingdom (23 September, 1932) (Al-Turaiqi, 2008; Albassam, 2011; BTI, 2012; Chatham, 2011; Hamzawy, 2006; Matthes, Otto, & Schützhold, 2007; Peterson, 1984; UN, 2004). This profoundly traditional kingdom has “undergone socioeconomic transformation” to the level perhaps no resembling anywhere else in the
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Moreover, Saudi legal system is mainly based on Quran and Sunnah, however daily life administration matters are managed by “promulgate regulations” (Matthes, et al., 2007; UN, 2004). The full draft of all administrative regulations (called Nizam) was compiled first during the days of King Fahd in 1992 (Al-Turaiqi, 2008; Albassam, 2011; UN, 2004). King Fahd with those regulations started to establish a state with written and clear laws that are necessary to build a modern country. Political System of Saudi Arabia consists of judicial authority, executive authority and
Organizational authority (Hamzawy, 2006; Matthes, et al., 2007). Traditionally, the king has the executive and legislative authorities; this means that the king has judicial power in the land (Al-Turaiqi, 2008; Albassam, 2011; Matthes, et al., 2007). The king’s power is controlled by Islamic law, seeking consensus among royal family members, religious leaders, and the leaders of important tribal families (Al-Turaiqi, 2008; Matthes, et al., 2007; Peterson, 1984; UN, 2004). However Saudi since 1990s started to add some modern touches to its political system to get along with the economic and social changes in the kingdom (Albassam, 2011; Peterson, 1984). The major components of Saudi political are listed in the study of (Peterson, 1984) as follows:
- Tribalism: Saudi society has deep tribal roots, actually the royal family
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