The No Child Left Behind

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“In 2002, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law was the first to mandate nationwide testing at various grade levels” (Breiner, 2015). Since then, summative tests have been used to assess the achievement of students and increase accountability for both the schools and teachers (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2013, p. 15-25). These summative tests, also referred to as high-stakes tests, are given annually to students in third to ninth grade in language arts, math, and reading (Roach, 2014; Shepard, 2003). There are critics stating that teachers are only teaching to these high-stakes tests, implying that there is no real learning improvement, as well as those who are for and against conducting high-stakes testing. Critics of high-stakes testing have suggested that teachers only teach to these tests and that the students are not learning. Because the results from high-stakes testing are used to make several important decisions, some teachers might feel as if they are pressured to teach to the test (Kubiszyn & Borich, 2013, p. 30; Roach, 2014). Now, the teachers’ roles are not only to teach the students the curriculum, but they are also responsible for preparing students to pass these tests. This is done by teaching the students test taking strategies. Not only are the students learning the curriculum material for their state standards, but the test taking strategies can be used in real-world situations (Phelps, 2005, p. 159-160). There are benefits to using

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