The Northern Song

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Therefore, maintaining peace and avoiding warfares became ever more important because it would be much risky for the Northern Song to get involved in warfares when the direct cost would be a heavy loss of the fertile areas of the prosperous economy supported by the highly-developed agriculture, without those barren lands as buffer zones. During the processes of warfares, the Northern Song, as a state which counted on civil administration to produce wealth, had to spend a huge amount of wealth to participate in the warfares while its northern neighbors, as military states which had much lower productivity and counted on invasions and occupations to plunder wealth, did not have much to lose and actually could gain more. Therefore, it was …show more content…

From the very begging “The sun sets in molten gold. The evening clouds from a jade disk,” it is “natural” but wrong for us to speculate that this poem is really about “everlasting joy” filled in Linan (Southern Song’s capital). On the contrary, she then directly expresses her sadness by “This feast of Lanterns should be joyful. The weather is calm and lovely. But who can tell if it will be followed by wind and rain?”, with details like “A sad flute plays Falling Plum Blossoms” supporting the expression of her nostalgia that “I remember the happy days in the old capital.” Then she declined her friend’s invitation, preferred to stay beyond the curtains and listened to talk and laughter she could no longer share. Apparently, this poem vividly depicts the contradictory situation between the happiness in the city and the sadness on her mind and it creates an independent and stubborn female image in a period when women’s social and familial status was relatively menial. Qingzhao even aggressively criticized the rulers of escaping to the south instead of fighting against Jin. Not only her writing style became bold, audacious, and mighty, but also her personality became indomitable — she had a divorce with her second husband who abused her, which is hardly seen in Song times when women are suppressed to a state that it is illegal for women to sue their husbands. Basically, Li Qingzhao displays her strong female image not only in her writings

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