CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW Overview The obesity epidemic remains a public health concern worldwide. Obesity rates remain high in the United States, where one third of adults are obese.1 According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the percent of children (ages 2-19 years) who are obese rose from 14.5% in 1999 to 17.3% in 2012.1 A recent study based on the 2012-2013 NHANES suggests a stabilization in obesity rates since 2003-2004, with a significant decrease among 2-5 year olds but no significant changes observed in other age groups.2 This literature review will examine the following topics: I) racial/ethnic disparities in the obesity trends and health implications; II) dietary and other factors driving the obesity epidemic; III) methods to assess dietary outcomes of interventions; IV) examples of interventions to reverse childhood obesity; V) the design of the Niños Sano, Familia Sana (Healthy Children, Healthy Family) study; and VI) the rationale and need for this research. Throughout, these topics will particularly highlight evidence in Latino populations. . The Latino population in the United States is diverse. In this dissertation, the term Mexican-Origin is used to identify our study subjects who self-report as Mexican-American, Chicano or Mexican. The original terms (e.g. Latino, Hispanic, Mexican-American) used in other studies cited below will be retained to preserve integrity of the literature. I Racial/Ethnic Disparities in
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It is no doubt that obesity exists worldwide, but it is a very prevalent issue in the US. This pandemic has certainly risen in focus in the past decade, with a rate of obese children that has quadrupled since the 1970s. Though this issue seems quite new, obesity exists in every generation, and the adults in the current generation are living with thirty-four percent of their fellow adults obese. This amount may seem high, and
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic in the United States in the past three decades. In 2012, roughly 17% or 12.5 million children and adolescents are overweight or obese” (“Childhood Obesity Facts,” 2014). According to the Centers of Disease Control and
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011). Although the rise in obesity cuts across all of age groups, both genders, and all cultural and racial groups; statistics have demonstrated that Hispanic children are more likely to become obese than White or Black children in the United States. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (2011), childhood obesity is more prevalent among Hispanic children than in other ethnic groups, and the United States problem has been steadily increasing over the past decade. Lack of physical activity and poor nutritional habits could be the leading causes of the rise in obesity among this vulnerable population. The consequences of obesity are not trivial. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, serious conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and psychosocial problems such as low self-esteem (Strauss, 2000). Early intervention is imperative to address the implications of childhood obesity in the United States.
Overweight and obesity, an excessive accumulation of body fat, is one of the major public health challenge in the 21st century, affecting one in every six people worldwide (World Health Organization, 2013a). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimation, globally over 42 million children under the age of five were overweight in 2010 (WHO, 2011). A recent study estimated that the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children aged 2-5 years increased from 4.2% to 6.7% within two decades and is expected to reach 12.7% by 2020 (de Onis et al., 2010). The results of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in the United State (US) obesity among pre-school children increased from 5% to 10.4% between 1976-1980 and 2007-2008 respectively. In addition, about 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years were obese in the US in 2007-2008 (Pan et al., 2012). A recent study by Grow et al. (2010) found that obesity was mostly prevalent among poor or minority groups with low socioeconomic status residing in disadvantaged areas in the US.
Since 1980 the rates of child obesity have more than tripled which has caused a growing pandemic of childhood obesity in the United States. Out of all the young children and adolescents within the age group of two through nineteen about 12.7 million are obese. That is the equivalent of about 17% of America’s population that is suffering from childhood obesity. Childhood obesity is too prevalent in all American households. Childhood obesity is detrimental on a national scale, since it has been growing at a steady rate in the United States of children not reaching the daily-recommended physical activity, the absence of a balanced diet with overconsumption of eating, and more critically the increase of type 2 diabetes.
Childhood obesity is becoming one of the top public health concerns in the United States. “Over the past three decades, childhood obesity rates have tripled in the U.S., and today, the country has some of the highest obesity rates in the world: one out of six children is obese, and one out of three children is overweight or obese” (World Health Organization, 2015). With the drastic increase in obese children over the last 30 years and the huge healthcare associated costs many programs and incentives have been implemented to fight this epidemic. Although any child can become obese “racial and ethnic inequities persist among children; 22.5 percent of Latino children and 20.2 percent of Black children are obese, compared to 14.1 percent of
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and other developed economies. Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased at an alarming rate, from 5-7% to 18-20% by 2008 (CDC, 2012). In addition, a full one third of all children in the U.S. are now overweight.
The obesity rate in America has become a major national health issue over the last several decades. Increasingly alarming statistics have garnered national headlines. Current statistics place 68.5% of the U.S. population in classifications ranging from "overweight" to "super obese." Approximately 35% of all U.S. adults currently fall under the label of "obese".(Ogden, et al., 2014) Potentially more alarming is the prevalence of obesity in adolescents. U.S. youth are becoming obese at earlier and earlier ages. One out of six children ages 2-19 are now obese and fully one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. (Ogden, Carroll, Curtin, Lamb, & Flegal, 2010) Between 1980 and 2000, obesity rates among adults doubled and tripled among adolescents. (CDC.gov)
Obesity is a national epidemic with wide consequences and cost to America’s health and productivity. In recent years, policymakers, medical health experts and parents have expressed alarming concerns about the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States, especially among Hispanic children. While most agree that this critical issue deserves attention, consensus dissolves around how to respond to the problem. This research paper examines one approach to treating childhood obesity: Taxing companies that manufacture foods with low nutritional value “junk food” companies. The paper reviews the effectiveness in children and adolescents of taxing food companies that provide foods with low nutritional value versus parent/child
The childhood obesity plague in America is a nationwide health emergency. One in every three children (31.7%) ages 2-19 is overweight or obese. The life-threatening price of this epidemic makes a persuasive and serious call for action that cannot go unnoticed. Obesity is anticipated to cause 112,000 deaths per year in the United States, and one third of all kids born in the year 2000 are likely to develop diabetes at some stage in their lifetime. The present age group may even be on a pathway to have a shorter lifespan than their parents. There needs to be change so we don’t lose our children. Most people may not know that America is leading with the most childhood obesity issues. People that are obese are more likely to have risk factors such
In a research article by Gee, Chin, Ackerson, Woo & Howell, (2013) from the years of 1970 to 2000 the pediatric population in the U.S. tripled in obesity rates, interestingly from the year 2000 – 2010 BMI’s have held steady yet a staggering 30.4% of this population were either overweight or labeled obese. Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) performed a research study in 2001, which had three goals related to the study
According to “Childhood Obesity Facts”, the percentage of children with obesity in the United States has more than tripled since the 1970s. Today about one in five school-aged children (ages 6-19) is obese.” Also, “The State of Obesity” reported that childhood obesity rates have remained at around 17 percent for the past decade. Approximately 14 percent of children (ages 2 to 5) enrolled in WIC are obese. Nearly one-third (31.3 percent) of children ages 10 to 17 are overweight or obese, and 13.9 percent of high school students are obese. These statistics support that childhood obesity is a problem in our country.
According to the CDC, childhood obesity in the United States is at a steady incline and has seen an exponential growth in the past 30 years. (“Childhood Obesity Facts”, 2015).
If a person was given two plates in front of them, one with the chocolate cake and the other one with celery sticks, which one would be? My guess is that chocolate cake would be gone faster than the celery sticks. It is been heard that “you are what you eat” and that is fairly true. The food a person puts in their mouth affects the way they look. A very striking epidemic in America is the way people eta and how that effects them. It is becoming a great concern about the way people eat and how little to no exercise they get. Nearly 1/3 of adults are considered overweight or obese. The question is how does a person become that way in why haven’t they done anything about it? Obesity has become a national epidemic regarding social economic status along with the personal choice of living an inactive lifestyle and begins with children’s mental stability.
Obesity is becoming an increasing problem with children in America. The obesity rate among children and adolescents have been greatly increasing in the last thirty years. “In 1976, about 7% of children and 5% of adolescents were obese, with a body mass index (BMI) in the 95th percentile; in 2000, over 15% of both groups had become obese.” Nearly one third of American children were obese by 2000.