A statement of the problem
The percentage of public elementary and secondary school students in the United States who were identified as English language learners (ELL) in the 1999-2000 school year was 6.7% of the total school population (U.S. Department of Education, 2000). The increase is in mainly in the Hispanic subpopulation and Hispanic students traditionally perform poorly on national assessments. The No Child Left Behind legislation requires that “all children will have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to receive a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency” on standardized assessments (Section 1001, p. 15). As ELL student populations increase so does the pressure on teachers and schools to increase the numbers of ELL students who meet state-governed reading proficiency levels.
A review of the literature
The researchers’ in this study conclude that ELL students participating in secondary-tier interventions using curricula with a direct instruction approach and delivered in small groups presented greater outcomes in student progress on DIBELS assessments and for the Woodcock Reading Mastery test. The researchers cite other reading studies that have used these same assessment methods as giving validity to their use. Their study outcomes further suggest that direct instruction using evidence-based reading practice in small groups of 3-5 students is a teaching method that should be employed by teachers of ELL students in order to increase
More young americans nowadays are being raised in homes speaking non-English, but these students are falling behind in schools where there is not a bilingual program available. According to the U.S. Department of Education, in schools without a bilingual education program, 71% of English speakers are at or above the basic requirements for fourth grade reading while merely 30% of non-English speakers reach this level. 35% of English and 8% of non-English speakers reach proficient reading levels while only 9% of English and 1% of non-English speakers perform at advanced levels. It’s evident that the availability of a bilingual program is crucial to the success of an individual who needs the resources that can be given to them through the use of bilingual education. The percentages of the non-English speaking students previously mentioned could undoubtedly be comparable to those percentages of the English speaking students if the education they were being provided with was cohesive to their comfortability, and the material being taught was in a language they could better understand.
born children lived in poverty in the U.S. (Camarota, 2001). “The primary reason for this is that a very large share of Mexican immigrants lack a formal education” (Camarota, 2001, p. 47). Statistics from the Center for Immigration Studies indicate that the average income for adult Mexican immigrants is less than half the income of U.S. born workers (Camarota, 2001). With the location of the Rio Grande Valley right next to the Mexican border, the school districts in this area are heavily populated with English language learners. According to Linn and Hemmer (2011), a rate of “21% of elementary and secondary students spoke a language other than English at home. Of these, approximately two million, or 75%, spoke Spanish.” (p. 1). In addition, school districts along the Texas-Mexico border are considered at-risk for having English language learners overrepresented in the special education programs. According to Artiles and Ortiz (2002), research shows that “English language learners with the least amount of language support are most likely to be referred to special education” (p. 1). Often the children with the least support are from poor families. Another problems consists of assessments methods, both diagnostic and state mandated, that are inappropriate for English language learners. Even if assessments are provided in the child’s native language, this
In 2001, NCLB established legislation in a sweeping overhaul of federal effort to support elementary and secondary education. The legislation (Section 11: Title III) holds school districts accountable for English proficiency and is based upon improved student achievement and accountability for results with an emphasis on doing what works based on scientific research (Boward County Public Schools, 2010). With NCLB accountability, districts much describe how they will hold elementary and secondary schools accountable for meeting the goals and objectives for increasing the English proficiency of current ELL’s (Boward County Public Schools, 2010). Districts must also hold elementary and secondary schools accountable for meeting the goals and objectives for increasing academic achievement for all current and former ELL’s (Boward County Public Schools, 2010). Further required is an improvement plan that outlines interventions and procedures implemented if districts fail to meet the Annual Measureable Achievement Objectives (AMAO). Procedures and implementation are monitored by SALA (Bureau of Student Achievement through Language Acquisition) (Florida Department of Education).
Early reading success is the foundation of a student’s knowledge and self-esteem. The foundation also provides future opportunities for growth. Students must learn to read proficiently so that they are able to learn more in future grades, post-secondary schools, and the workforce. Beverly Tyner’s Small-Group Reading Instruction: A Differentiated Teaching Model for Beginning and Struggling Readers states “In the United States, which offers few career opportunities for the illiterate, teaching children to read proficiently is the most important single task in education.” (Tyner, 2009). Beverly Tyner created the Small-Group Differentiated Reading Model which incorporates research-based strategies for teaching beginning reading skills and skills
As our nation shifts towards a more culturally diverse population both educators and families have to find a common ground to ensure that English Language Learners are academically successful. All stakeholders must carefully consider the social cultural impact on an ELL education. The process of raising bilingual learners take more than a language a school and a language learned at home. The transition must have a purpose and a goal.
English language learners enrollment in the Council member districts has remained relatively stable over the past several years. In 2007-08, 1.1 million ELLs were enrolled in urban schools, accounting for 16.5 percent of total district enrollment. In 2009–10, 1.2 million ELLs were enrolled, accounting for 17.5 percent of total district enrollment (Uro & Barrio, p. 26, 2013). The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 required students in grades three through eight to be tested every year in reading and math. While NCLB now holds educators more accountable with student learning, it now also tests English language learners (ELLs) in content areas (Coltrane, 2002, p.1). This denotes a question of validity and reliability with assessment. The
The primary goal of any school district’s English Language Learner policy should be to ensure that all students receive equitable access to the curriculum. The Office of Civil Rights memorandum (May 25, 1970) requires school districts to take affirmative steps to provide equal access to instructional program for students with limited English proficiency. The Illinois Constitution guarantees every child from kindergarten through grade 12, access to a free public education; which means, regardless of a child’s home language, he/she deserves a free and appropriate education (Illinois State Board of Education, 1998).
“The world’s greatest problems do not result from people being unable to read and write. They result from people in the world-from different cultures, races, religions, and nations-being unable to get along and to work together to solve the world’s problems.” These statements by James A. Banks have made a profound impact on my view towards multicultural education and the nation’s current trend of standardization and high-stakes testing. Scholarly research shows that the emphasis placed on testing and standards, mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, is causing teachers to focus entirely on basic skills in reading, writing, and math (Banks & Banks, 2010). This focus on basic skills is taking much needed time and attention away
It is no secret that the debate over what is the best course of action to educate our non-native English language students across the country is a highly charged topic that runs from the classroom to Capitol Hill. There have been many shifts in direction and focus of educational programs for English Language Learning (ELL) students during the past century in our nation's history. In 1968, with the passage of the Bilingual Education Act (Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act) legislation was
The situation amongst ELLs and literacy instruction, including assessment practices, is confusing for many teachers; therefore there is still much exploration left in terms of the best practices for the instruction and assessment of ELLs (Ebe, 2010).
In the United States, there has been an increase in in the number of children from Spanish speaking backgrounds. The English Language Learners, commonly known as ELL’s, are being placed in Special Education without being properly tested for a learning disability. However there are a large number of ELL’s with learning disabilities in elementary grades that truly have a learning disability and are over looked. Many school districts have problems placing ELL’s. As a result these students end up in special education whether they have a learning disability or language impairment. Teachers are also indecisive when dealing with ELL’s. Most teachers recommend that ELL’s
Haas, E., & Huang, M. (2010). Where do English language learner students go to school? Student distribution by language proficiency in Arizona. (REL Technical Brief, REL 2010–No. 015).
Diverse cultures within the United States are rapidly developing and growing and the educational sector is the number one target to ensure that English –learners are receiving adequate education. Within the educational sector there are administrators and teachers who are involved in students lives on a daily basis to ensure that education is equal. In order to achieve the vital objective of equality, socio-cultural influences on ELL students, bilingualism and home language use, parental and community resources, and partnerships between families and schools all have to be considered to provide an opportunity for equal education.
Parents and educators had noticed the struggle that their students were having with reading and lawyers took charge and sued the state. “[California] had failed to provide the children with the resources they need to learn” (Hauser 1). The state had not interceded when student achieved low scores in reading. Some of their schools are so underserved that they fall behind the rest and their students lack in basic skills. Not only does not have the right material adhere a student’s learning ability but the lack of educational guidance and assignments. “Many students in the state would be at ‘academic risk’ if improved literacy instruction was not an ‘immediate and central focus’ of the system” (3). With the individual states of America not prioritizing how students learn in schools, it truly affects the children when they get
Proponents of 227 from the READ Institute argue that, the test scores from 1998-2000, show that minority English language learning students in California have done better on the SAT 9 test than those in bilingual education had done before (Mora). Kenji Hakuta, shows in his article, Points on SAT-9 Performance and Proposition 227, “test scores rose in districts in California that kept bilingual education, as well as in districts that never had bilingual education” (Hakuta). In addition,