The Pros And Cons Of Criminology

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Over the last three decades, the social changes of late modernity come to impress the criminal justice authorities of the UK and the USA upon on the crime control and criminal justice (Garland 2001). In response to the specific constraints, pressures or problems, they have had to reorient their practice and formulate policy through a series of accommodations and adjustments. However, the authorities still have had to face a new and problematic criminological predicament due to two key social factors ‘the normality of high crime rates’ and ‘the acknowledged limitations of the criminal justice state’ (Garland 2001, p.106). In order to change the confusing circumstances, criminology offers a great deal of interpretations and perspectives that leads contemporary crime control policy and practice to be governed by contradictory criminologies (Carrabine et al. 2009). David Garland (2001) represents one of the most sophisticated attempts to make a two-pronged and contradictory response to the collapse of ‘penal-welfarism’ in crime control systems across western societies at the end of the 20th century. According to Garland (2001), the ‘criminology of penal-welfarism’ has been increasingly superseded by two new criminologies: the ‘criminology of the other’ and the ‘criminology of the self’ (Garland 2001, p.138). Although the ‘criminology of the other’ is regarded as mainstream criminology, the ‘criminology of the self’ is recently supported by a broad range of theories that combine

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