http://www.brsquared.org/wine/Articles/SO2/SO2.htm research question
What is the role of sulphur dioxide in white wine? background theory
Wine has been a popular beverage for many years amongst different societies. The process of winemaking is one of the most complex and detailed processes, where every step is meticulous towards ensuring the best quality wine is produced. However, different phenomena are able to affect the wine even after it is bottled and stored.
Oxidation is the chemical process by which an electron is removed from an atom, or group of atoms, through reactions that may or may not involve oxygen addition or hydrogen loss. With the exception of some, the overall effects of oxidation in food products are considered detrimental and can cause loss of nutritional value and development of off-flavours. (Clementine, H., 2014) Over the years, wine oxidation has been linked to sensory and olfactory unpleasantness, with the exception of deliberate oxidation to achieve certain qualities.
Wine has several critical components, which create its complex aroma and flavour profile, that oxidise with air. The main oxidisable compounds in wine are phenolics, which include wine pigments. Phenolics or a phenol molecule has a benzene ring structure with a hydroxyl or alcohol functional group (OH) – directly bonded to the benzene ring.
Ethanol is another one of the key components that reacts with oxygen according to the equation: CH3CH2OH + O2 CH3COOH + H2O
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In an oxidation reaction, the number of C-H bonds decreases or the number of C-O bonds increases, while in a reduction reaction, the number of C-H bonds increases or the number of C-O bonds decreases. In the oxidation step of this reaction, 4-tert-butylcyclohexanone is formed from when a C-H bond is lost while a C-O bond is gained to create a carbonyl. In the reduction step, 4-tert-butylcyclohexanol is formed when the carbonyl is converted into an alcohol when a nucleophilic hydride attacks the carbonyl. Whether the OH is in the
Although the consumption of large quantities of alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of certain cancers, it is increasingly clear that the health benefits of red wine are linked to its non-alcoholic components. The red wine contains a very powerful molecule known as resveratrol, a powerful antioxidant, commonly found in the skin of the grape. This component kills bacteria, viruses and fungi. Only 225 ml of red wine delivers about 640 mcg of resveratrol. Resveratrol is usually taken in doses of 200-600 mcg per day.
Wine is a known product of human passion and scoring it through its taste alone write a little description of how wine is to be tasted. A lot of wine bloggers and writers also become passionate in writing reviews about wine. In order to fully understand and appreciate wine, many of us should also know who made it and what meaning it truly entails upon making the said wine. A wine becomes very meaningful when we know some of its history and elements on how it was mixed and created, making it more enjoyable to taste and build such experience to taste
What does wood aging do to a wine? There are three aspects to consider, the wood it is made from, the size and shape of the cask, and the age of the cask. Oak is the preferred timber because of its strength and relative lightness, its cellular structure and it is the taste components it contributes to wine.
Red wine contains naturally occurring compounds called polyphenols; these compounds can also be found in high concentration in tea, nuts, berries, cocoa, and various plants. Recent research into the mechanics of this chemical has shed light on how it works: polyphenols block the formation of toxic aggregations, or masses, of the protein Amyloid
Wine is a popular and important beverage that enhances a person's overall health and well being when consumed moderately. There has been many studies and research on the benefits of this beverage and it has a history of originally being used as a medicine. The consumption of red wine includes such benefits as anti-aging, controlled blood sugar, and overall health. In the United States, approximately 50 percent of adults are current regular drinkers and 14 percent are current infrequent drinkers. This study indicates that there is a mass amount of people who already indulge in alcohol and if these people knew the benefits of different types of alcohol, they might be more prone to switch their drink of choice and try something beneficial, such as red wine. Red wine has many benefits such as weight control. "Alcohol can stimulate the appetite so it is better to drink it with food. When alcohol is mixed with food, it can slow the stomach's emptying time and potentially decrease the amount of food consumed at the meal" (WedMD). Researchers, also, found a boost in brainpower with one drink a day. Moderate drinkers had a 23% reduced risk of mental decline compared with nondrinkers. Red wine also contains a very high dosage of antioxidants, which is very beneficial to the health and overall well being of an individual. These antioxidants have numerous amounts of vitamins and mineral compounds that protect the heart, radiate skin, and reduces ones chances of getting ill. Along with
The studies reportedly found that red wines contain a variety of beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, which prevent proteins like endothelin-1 from developing (Why Red Wine is Healthier, 2001). These negative proteins like endothelin-1 contribute to the buildup of plaque on artery walls which eventually lead to heart disease, heart attacks, and even death.
Increase in pH degrades the Wine Quality: In fact, pH's higher than 4.0 are generally avoided as spoilage is more likely to occur above this level. A low pH value wine provides a fresher taste, increases ageing potential and shifts color equilibrium to more red pigments .
Studies have shown that alcohol in moderation has positive benefits for people’s health. Wine is one type of alcohol that has benefits for one’s health are seen at many dinners and gatherings. Red wine is known to be one of the most beneficial alcohols due to its impact on the heart. “Red wine contains considerably more flavonoids, particularly anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, than white wine” (Mayer 76). Anthocyanins have multiple scientific lab studies that connected the compound with the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. “Data compiled from the prospective study of 85,709 woman, age 34 to 59 years, in the Nurse’s Health Study revealed a
I know that the topic of acids in wines have been discussed many times in our wine circles. It is important to realize that both good and bad acids exist in the wines that we drink. Let 's look at acids in wines and their effects on the final product that we all enjoy so much.
Two common acids in wine are tartaric and malic acids which vary depending on grape variety and region that they are grown. A good example is looking at the Chardonnay varietal from France verses Napa, California. A Chardonnay from Burgundy France has a lower concentration of malic acid than one from Napa Valley of California.
Hydrogen peroxide sometimes can be utilized to produce oxygen gas. One of the way to cause the decomposition reaction is to add some catalyst. Liver solution contains catalase which is from the liver cells. After the cells being broken down, the catalase is released and dissolves in water. As the catalyst, liver solution can cause the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and therefore release the oxygen that is produced in the reaction. If the volume of hydrogen peroxide increases while other controlled variables remain the same, then the volume of oxygen gas will also increase, because the more reactant there is, the more gas will be produced. An increase in volume also means an increase in mass, as well as the number of molecules in the reactant.
Tannins are usually only used in red wine, to give it color, so the stem and skin is very important in the making of red wine. (Snyder, n.d.).