The Role of the Brain in Cognitive Functions: A Case Study

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Introduction Neuroscience's study of Cognitive Function is a relatively late phenomenon. As late as 1848, the accident and resulting injuries of Phineas Gage amazed the medical community. Furthermore, retrospective study of Gage's injuries continues to yield new information about brain injury, personality and rehabilitation. Body: The Role of the Brain in Cognitive Functions "Cognitive function" is a series of intellectual processes whereby a person becomes aware of or comprehends ideas and it includes every facet of reasoning, thinking, perception and memory (Farlex, Inc., 2012). Though the study of the brain's role in cognitive functions is an ongoing discovery, we do know that specific areas of the brain support certain cognitive functions, as the figure below shows: (Hoss, 2010) These specific areas or "activity centers" (Hoss, 2010) include but are not limited to: the Right Inferior Parietal Cortex, which assists us with spatial organization, distinctions between our self and other people and processes metaphors; the Visual Association Cortex, which makes and associates images with information being processed by the brain; the Precuneus area, which assists us with segmented memories; the Temporal Lobe, which processes, perceives and recognizes visual and audio information; the Anterior Cingulate, which handles conflicting perceptions, gives possible solutions and selects the most rewarding solution; the Basal Ganglion, which helps us control
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