When data from all four studies were combined, there were 806 patients who completed the satisfaction questionnaire. Of these patents, 447 (56%) were satisfied with their pain level, 291 (37%) were not satisfied with their pain level, and 68 (8%) were not sure if they were satisfied with their pain level (Table 2).
There were statistically significant but weak correlation coefficients for satisfaction with pain level and current (rs=-.34, p=<.01), least (rs=-.24, p=<.01) and worst (rs=-.34 p=.<.01) pain intensity. Also, there was a weak linear correlation between satisfaction with pain level and API (rs=-.36, p=.01) (Table 4). Mean current, least, worst and API scores were compared by satisfaction with pain level as shown in Table 3. …show more content…
This study of outpatients with cancer is the first to show that when satisfaction is measured with an item focused on pain level there are slightly more than half of the patients who are were satisfied with their pain levels and the mean pain intensity scores differ significantly as would be expected. The differences between the mean API score of subjects reporting "no" and "yes" on the satisfaction with pain level item (4.68 versus 2.26, respectively) was significant. This supports our hypothesis that the more intense the pain, the less satisfaction with pain level the patient will report. In contrast with other researchers who have not found associations between satisfaction with pain management and pain intensity, we found that when the pain score and satisfaction is measured specifically related to the amount of pain the person has, patients with cancer and higher pain intensity are not satisfied but those with lower pain intensity are satisfied. This finding is intuitive, but has eluded other researchers in their studies of patients who had pain related to a variety of conditions, including those with cancer and recovering from surgery. Our findings from a large sample of patients indicate that satisfaction with pain level can be used as an outcome of pain treatment effectiveness. Also, our sample included patients in all four stages of
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Psychological factors are known to contribute to how people experience and cope with pain. However, as people age, they experience normative age-related changes in psychological functioning. Thus, much of what is known about psychology and pain may not necessarily apply to older adults, unless it has specifically been tested in older populations. This is a particularly important point, because pain remains a major problem for millions of older adults. Furthermore, it is expected that the populations of older adults in America will increase significantly in the coming years, as people are living longer now that at any other point in history. Given that psychology changes across the lifespan, and that pain is a problem in older populations, this
One way to assess pain behaviours is to observe them in a clinical setting (although pain is also assessed in a natural setting as the patient goes about his or her everyday activities). Keefe and Williams (1992) have identified five elements that need to be considered when preparing to assess any form of behaviour through this type of observation. • A rationale for observation: it is important for clinicians to know why they are observing pain behaviours. One reason is to identify ‘problem’ behaviours that the patient may be reluctant to report, such as pain when swallowing, so that treatment can be given.
This paper will define the term pain and how it pertains to the comfort theory. Next, there will be discussion from relevant literature in regards to pain. Its defining attributes will be
“Pain is much more than a physical sensation caused by a specific stimulus. An individual's perception of pain has important affective (emotional), cognitive, behavioral, and sensory components that are shaped by past experience, culture, and situational factors. The nature of the stimulus for pain can be physical, psychological, or a combination of both.” (Potter, Perry, Stockert, Hall, & Peterson, 2014 p. 141) As stated by Potter et al, the different natures of pain are dealt with differently depending on many factors. Knowing this, treating pain can be very difficult as there is no single or clear cut way of measuring it; “Even though the assessment and treatment of pain is a universally important health care issue,
The ratings for this scale vary from no pain, a zero, to the worst pain one could possibly endure, a ten ('Misha' Backonja & Farrar, 2015). This type of tool used for measuring pain is considered a self-assessment. Meaning, the individual rates his/her pain on the provided scale. All individuals who have received medical treatment, whether for a serious injury or a yearly physical, has been asked, “What would you rate your pain today, on a scale of one to ten?”. This pain assessment tool is considered a fully ordered variable due to the individual having a wide range to rate his/her
The Shapiro-Wilk statistical test is used to assess the normal distribution of the pain intensity before conducting subsequent statistical tests. Data analysis is performed using mixed models with two-sided, with a type I error set as .05. Concerning the primary objective, the comparison between randomized groups will be performed using ANOVA with a baseline score as a covariate. The correlation between baseline and follow-up scores is also calculated (Vickers, 2001). In the secondary analysis, chi-square is carried out to express the frequencies of adverse effects and response rate. Also, A paired student test is suggested to evaluate the pain reduction within the two groups. Sensitivity analysis will be proposed to assess the robustness of the data based on the pattern-mixture and selection
According to John Hopkins Medicine (n.d.), pain is an uncomfortable feeling that tells you something may be wrong. It can be fixed, throbbing, stabbing, aching, pinching, or described in many other ways. Pain is categorized as either acute or chronic. Acute pain is usually severe and brief, and is often a signal that your body has been injured. Chronic pain can vary from mild to severe and is there for long periods of time (John Hopkins Medicine, n.d). This paper will discuss a scenario that entails which person is experiencing the most pain, how two people can have the same procedure experience different levels of pain, factors that contribute to each person’s pain level, and two complementary/alternative methods of pain control.
The patient completed three outcome measures, VAS, QuickDASH, and TSK. The VAS is a visual analog scale of pain consisting of trying to objectively measure pain on a scale 0 to 10. The QuickDASH outcome measure is used to evaluate disorders and measure the disability of the patient’s upper extremity in the dimensions of body structure and function, activity, and participation. This outcome measure has 11 items and more than 1 items are left empty will invalidate the measurement, it takes about 5 minutes to complete, and the higher the score means the patient considers there are severe difficulties. As mentioned by Schmitt at al. the Minimal Clinical Importance Difference for this outcome measure is 10. The TSK is an item used to measure if
Continuously ask the patient to rate her pain. Providing the rating, location and type of pain. This is useful in determining if pain reduction measures are effective Unbound Medicine, 2014).
A t-test and an OLS regression were used to determine the differences of pain rating in the past seven days between males and females. The t-test output indicates a significant difference of pain score between females and males, t (2130) = 5.8629, p<0.001.
VAS is formed by a 100 mm horizontal line anchored on both ends, with the left end denotes the minimum score and the other end as the maximum score. VAS anchors, time period of reporting and instructions of use vary depending on the intended use of the scale. For pain intensity, the left-most anchor indicates “no pain,” which is a score of 0 and the right-most anchor indicates “worst imaginable pain,” which is a score of 100 on a 100 mm scale. Pain VAS is self-completed by the participant where they are asked to draw a line perpendicular to the VAS line at the point that represents their pain intensity. Value of pain intensity is obtained by measuring the distance from the “no pain” anchor to the perpendicular line drawn by the participant.
Pain cannot be measured by anyone other than the patient that is having the experience. This is why pain is sometime not understood and misevaluated by healthcare workers. Pain is measured by the Visual analog scale (VAS) of 1-10. One being the least amount of pain and ten being the worst possible. This test is done every four hours and reviewed 30 minutes after a medication administration for pain control. This non-invasive test gives the healthcare worker a measurable idea of the intensity of the pain the patient is experiencing. This also gives the health care worker a perceptive of how well the patient responds to pain after medication administration. Pain is not always seen it can be an eternal feeling.
The most common reason that people seek medical care is pain, and pain is the leading cause of disability (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 51; National Institute of Health, 2010). Pain is such an important topic in healthcare that the United States congress “identified 2000 to 2010 as the Decade of Pain Control and Research” (Brunner L. S., et al., 2010, p. 231). Unfortunatelly, patients are reporting a small increase in satisfaction with the pain management while in the hospital (Bernhofer, 2011). Pain assessment and treatment can be complex since nurses do not have a tool to quantify it. Pain is considered the fifth vital sign, however, we do not have numbers to guide our interventions. Pain is a subjective expirience that cannot be shared easily. Since nurses spend more time with patients in pain than any other healthcare provider, nurses must have a clear understanding of the concept of pain (Brunner, et al., 2010). Concept analysis’ main objective is to clarify ideas, to enhance critical thinking, and to promote communication (Rodgers & Knafl, 2000). This paper will examine the concept of pain using Wilson’s Steps of Concept Analysis (Rodgers & Knafl, 2000).
The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” (1979). Pain is actually the culprit behind warranting a visit to a physician office for many people (Besson, 1999). Notoriously unpleasant, pain could also pose a threat as both a psychological and economic burden (Phillips, 2006). Sometimes pain does happen without any damage of tissue or any likely diseased state. The reasons for such pain are poorly understood and the term used to describe such type of pain is “psychogenic pain”. Also, the loss of productivity and daily activity due to pain is also significant. Pain engulfs a trillion dollars of GDP for lost work time and disability payments (Melnikova, 2010). Untreated pain not only impacts a person suffering from pain but also impacts their whole family. A person’s quality of life is negatively impacted by pain and it diminishes their ability to concentrate, work, exercise, socialize, perform daily routines, and sleep. All of these negative impacts ultimately lead to much more severe behavioral effects such as depression, aggression, mood alterations, isolation, and loss of self-esteem, which pose a great threat to human society.
Pain occurs in the human body as the result of a physiological series of electrical and chemical modality; uncontrolled cancer-related aching interposes to the patients’ anguish, henceforth, the use of evidence-based interferences is vital to the quality of life (QoL) for cancer patients. To understand the best practice related to the interferences of