inductive research approach also called a bottom-up approach, the work proceeds on the basis of
The scientific method is a process used to prove or disprove a hypothesis through experimentation and analysis. The steps necessary include Asking a question and/or observation, Forming a hypothesis, Test the hypothesis, Analyze the results, Draw a conclusion, and Publish the findings.
The next step is to form a testable hypothesis, or educated guess. A hypothesis must phrased in a way that in which another person can test the same hypothesis to verify or discredit it. After the hypothesis is formed, the experimenter must choose and appropriate research study. For example, if a scientist want to do a study about the behaviors of a particular person, like in the case Phineas Gage and the psychological affects of the iron rod that shot through his head, than the scientist may want to conduct a case study. Once the research method is established and the study has been planned out, then it is time to conduct the experiment and collect the data. The final step is to analyze the data to see if it supports or rejects the hypothesis. If the results do not support the hypothesis, then one should revise their hypothesis. If the results do support the hypothesis, then the study should be replicated to validate this study. Sharing the results of the experiment with other members of the scientific community is also an important part is advancing one’s understanding of the particular
The first step is to locate and define the problem or desired research issue. The second step is to formulate a hypothesis and decide which method of hypothesis testing should be conducted such as exploratory research, descriptive research, or causal research. The third step is to collect data as primary of secondary such as surveys, observations or rely on other methods such as the census. The forth step is to
Induction and deduction will be codependent on each other in order to make an argument stronger. Induction lends itself to making conclusions based on several pieces of information gathered, whereas deduction uses syllogisms and enthymemes to make a straightforward conclusion. Writers can use these powerful tools to develop arguments and explanations that would make sense to the reader and proof how failsafe their argument is on
(Gordon, 1995) The process of deductive theories you can provide absolute proof if your conclusion. An example of deductive theories is when an investigation team considers the boyfriend or spouse of the murder of the girlfriend or wife. With inductive theories you begin with the data and then build on the conclusion. (Gordon, 1995) The process of inductive theories determines what general conclusions can be derived from the data used from research but never approaches the truth.
One known research method is the Scientific Method which is a uniform way of creating observations, assembly data, establishing concepts, testing predictions, and understanding outcomes. These observations are made in order to observe and define behaviors. The first step to take in using a scientific method is to develop an issue or question. Next step is to perform a research and observation on the issue or question that was developed. Then a hypothesis needs to be formulated after these steps have been made.
In doing the research, the methodology must be appropriate so that the analysis findings could reach the objective. Research methodology proposed one procedure in order way to be follow to answer all the questions in the research that want to be made. Quoted by Denzin and Lincoln (1994), methodology is a process that related with research objective and data. In the others word, it is early research planning that include the research scope, data collection method, data collection process and data analysis method. For Ranjit (2005), methodology is one of crucial part in research, in order to ensure the research can be done in the systematic way Overall, this chapter will discuss on the research frame and the methodologies used in order to meet the research objectives. Research process been divided into three main parts there are preliminary research part, data collection and last one data analysis.
It comes in no surprise that only those theories which make accurate predictions as well as fitting the empirical data count as being adequate and deemed ‘good’ science. In relation to the confusion associated with the unobservable mechanisms, anti-realist offer the view that just because the concepts of observable and unobservable are vague, it does not automatically mean they are not useful or false (Okasha 2002). The dependence of observation in proposing theory makes it hard and sometimes even impossible to come up conclusively falsify theories all the time. Not to mention that observable and unobservable mechanisms are not that difference after all (Okasha 2002). Correspondingly, as long as they are able to clarify and explain phenomena, all we need to do is to choose the best available. Once we have a theory in hand, as a result, we should have certain ability to predict the future, which is one of the key motivations for performing scientific research. Model is one of the most popular methods adopted by researchers to predict the future. The models of animal flocking behaviour, San Fransisco Bay model, and climate model are just few of the models which are regularly used to represent and explain the world in a simplified and mathematical way (Smith 2008; Weisberg 2013). Due to its countless applicable properties, the use of models is not limited to science only. After all, there are numerous advantages including the reduction in costs, the ability to examine effect of
First of all. I learned research methods from the video lecture. That is the first time I've heard about a detailed explanation of research methods. I was really interested in it because it is very important for us. The higher education level we are, the more research we need to do. As what I've learned, research has seven methods. The first step called: “defining the problem”. That means at the really first time when we do research, we should know what we want to know via this research. We need to come up some research question in our mind. The second step called: “reviewing the literature”. In this step, we should read some previous studies which are related to our topic. The literature must be trustable, and for journals, peer review is the better choice. The third step called: ” forming a hypothesis”. This step tells us after we are familiar with the previous research, maybe we can form a hypothesis in our mind. Actually, I have a little question about this step. Is this hypothesis based on the gap in the previous? The fourth step is choosing a research design. This is a step that organizes our research method. We need to think about who is the participants, when and how well we collect data. The fifth step is collecting the data. This step is kind of do your research plan what you prepared in the fourth step. There are many ways we can choose to collect data. Such as questionnaires, online survey etc. Next step is analyzing the data. This step is kind of tell the readers our research results. For here, we should determine if our hypothesis was true, false, or inconclusive. Also how the result similar to your thought. The final step is drawing conclusions. I think this is the most important part because you