B.F Skinner Renowned American psychologist B.F. Skinner, well known for his theory on behaviorism and operant conditioning. He was the most influential 20th - century psychologist. His works includes “The Behavior of Organisms” (1938) which was about the results in his experiment with operant conditioning, and a novel based on his theories “Walden” (1948). He was not only a psychologist he was a behaviorist, teacher, author, inventor, and a social philosopher as well. Born as Burrhus Frederic Skinner, in a small town of Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. As a young boy he was active, out-going who loved the outdoors and was fascinated in building gadgets and contraptions. As he grew up, in 1926 Skinner attended Hamilton College in New York, where broaden a passion for writing, but he did not have much success with writing. So he made the decision to pursue psychology at Harvard University. After Skinner earned his doctorate at Harvard, he started working and developed ideas of human behavior. He was influenced by the work of John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlov as well. During his time at Harvard he wanted a verifiable way to study psychology. In result, he developed a machine called “Operant Conditioning” in 1937, known as the Skinner Box. Skinner’s theory was that the external behavior should be observed only, he was more focused on how the consequences can impact a person’s behavior. He wanted to analyze how a consequences of a behavior can increase and decrease. The
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B.F Skinner was an American Psychologist who invented the operant conditioning chamber. The chamber he set up had rats in it and a lever, once the rats pulled the lever they were given a piece of food. After this happened the rate of bar pressing would increase dramatically and remain high until the rat was no longer hungry. He was a firm believer of the idea that human free will was actually an illusion and any human
Psychologist, born in Susquhanna, Pa. He studied at Harvard, teaching there (1931-6, 1947-74). A leading behaviorist, he is a proponent of operant conditioning, and the inventor of the Skinner box for facilitating experimental observations.
Though this theory mainly focuses on Skinner, another theorist named John B. Watson is mentioned. Watson believed that human behavior is the result of specific stimuli that elicited certain responses. His basic idea was that the conclusions about human development should be based on the observation of overt behavior rather than speculation. Watson was also a professor of psychology at Hopkins University and “By the time he left the field for good in the early 1930s, behaviorism had succeeded in taking center stage within American psychology” (Wozniak, 1997).
B.F. Skinner, born on March 20th 1904, was an American behavioural psychologist who carried who carried out many experiments based on how behaviour is shaped and that all humans will regurgitate the things they enjoy doing and avoid those they dislike. He understood that creative people will be rewarded positively in order for that person to take an interest in that particular activity and develop further. He based his theories on self-observation,
B.F. Skinner, the man who set the gold standard for shaping in behavioral anyalisis, known for his animal experiments using boxes built his way into becoming America’s leading neo-behaviorist. Skinner entered into the experimental world almost unintentionally, starting out life to become a novelist then completely switching gears on a whim of curiosity. Skinner didn’t start with a plan, he just had a question, he wanted to understand the behavior of living things. Thus, forming his infamous boxes, not knowing where it would lead him, but wanting to see it something was going to come from it.
One of the most prominent and influential psychologists of the twentieth century, B.F. Skinner was known as a behavioral psychologist, philosopher of science, and an educational innovator. Throughout his life he did experimental work with animals to discover how patterns of behavior are learned. His initial work was primarily conducted with animals, and later in life he started to work with humans and apply his learning from his pigeon studies to human behavior. He focused on the individual and wrote about how to restructure social systems to improve the quality of life.
While Skinner was at Harvard, he invented what he called an operant conditioning apparatus, known as the Skinner Box. By using this device, Skinner could study an animal interacting with its environment. He started off by studying rodents in the experiments, examining how the rats discovered and used a lever in the box that dispensed food at different times. Skinner then started experimenting with pigeons, using the box. The pigeons pecked at a disc to gain access to food. By conducting these tests Skinner came to the decision that some form of reinforcement was crucial in learning new behaviors. While researching at Harvard, Skinner pronounced the results of his operant conditioning experiments in the Behavior of Organisms (1938).
B. F. Skinner believed that a human being’s behavior is influenced and determined by external factors. He believed that free will and an individual’s freedom of choice was non-existent. I believe that Mr. Skinners ideas of operant conditioning for society is not a good idea.
Just as Freud is known as the father of Psychoanalysis, B.F. Skinner is often referred to ask the “the father of operant conditioning.” B.F. Skinner is also known for major contributions to the field of psychology (About B.F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). Skinner was a prolific author, publishing nearly 200 articles and more than 20 books. Skinner was most known for his work in behavior psychology. Behavioral psychology is the psychological practice that focuses on learning new behaviors and how to modify our existing behavior and how that takes place (About B.F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). One of his major contributions was his theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning means roughly, the changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement, either positive or negative, and which these reinforcements are given after the desired response (About B.F. Skinner, Sept, 2012). Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.
According to Gewirtz and Peláez-Nogueras (1992), “B. F. Skinner contributed a great deal to advancing an understanding of basic psychological processes and to the applications of science-based interventions to problems of individual and social importance.” He contributed to “human and nonhuman behavior, including human behavioral development, and to various segments of the life span, including human infancy” (p. 1411). One of Skinner's greatest scientific discoveries was “single reinforcement” which became sufficient for “operant conditioning, the role of extinction in the discovery of intermittent schedules, the development of the method of shaping by successive approximation, and Skinner's break with and rejection of stimulus-response
Skinner attended Hamilton University and studied to become a writer. His writing career did not take a good turn. As he started to work in a bookstore he happened to stumble upon some books written by Pavlov and Watson. He was impressed by their works and started to take in interest in their field. When Skinner was about 24 years old he enrolled himself into the Psychology Department of Harvard University " since he had always enjoyed observing animal and human behavior" (article 4). Skinner was not interested in " understanding the human mind " but rather in "its mental processes" (article 2). This is known as the field of
Burrhus Frederic Skinner otherwise called B.F. Skinner was born in March 1904, in Susquehanna, PA. B.F. Skinner was an American psychologist and behaviorist. Skinner came from a very strict household where both of his parents were very stern. Even though his parents were strict, Skinner grew up in a loving, secure, where his family tried to instill righteousness and morals into their children’s lives. When Skinner was younger he loved to be outside and was always building things with his hands. Since early childhood Skinner had an interest with animals and why they behave the way that they do. This followed him into his adulthood and even helped him develop the principles of operant conditioning. Operant Conditioning is a type of “learning in which reinforcement, which is contingent upon the occurrence of a particular response; increase the probability that the same response will occur again” (Feist & Feist, 2009). Through precise control of the environment, Skinner was able to modify the behavior of animal subjects.
First began by John B. Watson, behaviorism is one of the most widely studied theories today. B.F. Skinner and His Influence in Psychology B.F. Skinner was one of the most famous of the American psychologists. He was
Psychologist B.F. Skinner was born March 20, 1904 and passed away August 18, 1990. Raised in a small town in Pennsylvania by his father William who was a lawyer and his mother Grace. Skinner had a younger brother who he watched die at age sixteen due to cerebral hemorrhage. He attended Hamilton College in New York with plans of becoming a writer. After graduating with his B.A. in English literature he attended Harvard University. Here Skinner invented his prototype for the Skinner box. After Graduating he tried to write a novel which unsuccessfully failed. After his studies in psychology he then developed his own idea on behaviorism. Skinner then received a Ph.D. from Harvard and was a researcher there until 1936. He went on to teach at
Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and a social philosopher. Skinner is known for his discovery of the theory of operant conditioning (Wikipedia). Skinner was a graduate from Harvard University. Although he understood the importance of classical conditioning, he noted that, “principles of classical conditioning account for only a small portion of learned behaviors” (Woolfolk 250). Skinner expressed that through operant conditioning, behavior is strengthened or weakened by antecedents or consequences. Both theorists’ work have a major influence on learning/behavioral concepts.