The United Nations’ Universal Declaration of Human Rights stands as the current gold standard for every individual’s rights. Focusing on culture, one may see that cultural rights are not clearly defined and are oftentimes in conflict with other types of rights. In this paper, I will first discuss the United Nations’ use of ‘cultural’ in its universal human rights in relation to the concept of cultural relativism. Then, using South African and American practices, such as virginity testing and discriminatory criminal justice system respectively, I will describe and analyze practices violate the UN’s universal human rights in addition to the practices’ use for the community or society as a whole. Lastly, I will compare the American Anthropological Association’s rights to culture to the UN’s universal human rights by analyzing the limitations of each.
2. Articles 22 and 27’s Definition of ‘Cultural’ and Connection to Cultural Relativism
While Articles 22 and 27 do not outline a clear definition of ‘culture’ or ‘cultural,’ I understand these specific Articles to describe ‘cultural’ as the practices within a specific community that members of the community use to mature. Specifically, Article 22—“indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality”—uses culture as a freedom necessary for individual dignity and development. On the other hand, Article 27—“cultural life of the community”—refers to ‘cultural’ as participation in the community.
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All human beings are born with equal and inalienable rights and fundamental freedoms, but where was this saying when the Holocaust was going on? The Holocaust was the biggest, most brutal, and baddest mass killing of a single race. The people on the side of the Holocaust did not listen to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or anything to persuade them to stop killing Jews. All humans deserve the rights given to them by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
uman rights are defined as “a right that is believed to belong justifiably to every person”. Human Rights are continually evolving and changing for the better, they are constantly reassessed and improved for the world’s greater good. Countless people have tried to define what a Human Right is and who they belong to, but we always seem to come across the same philosophers and documents that truly define Human Rights. John Locke was a famous English philosopher in the seventeenth centaury who believed in natural rights provided by a “higher power”. Another name often associated with Human Rights is Mahatma Gandhi was a famous civil rights activist, particularly known for the steps he took against discrimination in India, and the leader of infamous nonviolent protests for his campaign against discrimination. One of the most infamous documents written about human rights is The UN Declaration of Human Rights was written in 1948, and is one of the most popular references of basic Human Rights.
The United States and twenty-six other nations formed the United Nations in 1945, three years later in 1948 the United Nations released the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the U.S. was in favor for it. Article 25 of this Declaration states "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services". One would think that a country in favor for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights would abide by it, but in the case of Article 25 the United States does not. The state of health of the Indigenous people living in America is far below the average standard of living compared to the rest of the nation 's population. Natives have been cast into a low spot on the social chain ever since whites came from Europe and it still shows today but in different forms. American Indians/Alaska Natives face major disparities in both mental and physical health across the country.
The concept that morals are not inherent or universal but are developed by the necessities of a given society at any certain time, as presented in William Graham Sumner’s Folkways, is inadequate and displeasing. While some moral practices are relative to particular cultures, that does not mean that there are no rights that belong to everyone, nor does it mean that just because an activity is practiced that it is morally justifiable. Each human being is entitled to a certain set of liberties, which are outlined in the “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” All individuals are supposed to have equal access to these rights, but according to Sumner, all rights are cultural and none are universal.
In accordance with article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1948, American citizens are entitled to, "the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services..." (Universal Declaration of Human Rights). This declaration also goes on to give a special mention to mothers and children, and their need for additional assistance. With this in mind, states commonly have many health policies to protect these human rights described in the above declaration. However, some states go against this declaration by restricting access to certain health services, namely abortion, on the basis of moral, political, or religious objection. In the following pages the topic of reproductive rights will be broached, and the associated cases that are centered on both sides of the issue will be discussed.
The mistreatment of women in the Middle East desecrates the human rights Americans claim all should have. In the second article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, “Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.” 203 countries around the world recognize the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and are apart of the United Nations organization itself, if 203 countries agree to govern and provide the rights the Declaration states, then why must women in certain regions receive permission
The “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” was created, after the Holocaust, in 1948. The terrible unfair treatment that occurred, during the Holocaust, most likely helped to create many of the articles in the “Universal Declaration of Human RIghts.” Articles such as, Article 2 Article 3, Article 5, and Article 12 are some of the articles that would have been violated during the time of the Holocaust.
The United Declaration of Human Rights is an international document where the United Nation (1948) put together to commit to uphold, promote and protect the human rights of every individual. The united Nation proclaims that the UDHR has a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. There are various ways that the United States can enhance its implementation of rights to our education system, media, and the workplace.
For decades, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been used as an overall basis for the rights every human is enabled to, no matter their differences. Without a doubt, there are several countries that violate this declaration and have no respect for their citizens’ rights. Many may agree that Pakistan is among the numerous countries that don’t take the steps to make sure that every man and woman is enabled to these rights. In recent years, Pakistan has discriminated against their own citizens, whether it be because of their religion, gender, or even caste, which violated Article 2 of the declaration. In addition, Article 16, or the right of someone to marry who they please and have the right to raise a family has also been violated thousands of times, whether it be by the government, a citizen’s village, or even his/hers own family. The right to have good working conditions and pay, which is Article 23, has also been violated by Pakistan, as many adults and children alike have faced work brutality. As a result of these numerous violations, it is clear that Pakistan does not follow Articles 2,16, and 23, and therefore this country violates the Declaration of Human Rights.
The doctrine of human rights were created to protect every single human regardless of race, gender, sex, nationality, sexual orientation and other differences. It is based on human dignity and the belief that no one has the right to take this away from another human being. The doctrine states that every ‘man’ has inalienable rights of equality, but is this true? Are human rights universal? Whether human rights are universal has been debated for decades. There have been individuals and even countries that oppose the idea that human rights are for everybody. This argument shall be investigated in this essay, by: exploring definitions and history on human rights, debating on whether it is universal while providing examples and background
Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that “No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” (O’Byrne, 2003, pg. 400). This human rights violation is also discussed in Article 7 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (408). While torture is discussed in many covenants and declarations as morally and legally wrong, many still argue that torture can be justified in certain situations. There are many answers and theories that can be applied to the everlasting question, is torture wrong? All the theories discussed thus far in the course will be applied to this question. In my opinion, the act of torturing someone is a heinous act that violates many human rights, and for that reason it is wrong in all circumstances, but one. I cannot undeniably state that torture is wrong, because in my opinion one situation justifies torture. So the argument that will be presented throughout this paper is that torture can be justified in a very specific situation, but in all other situations torture is morally wrong. To say that the act of torture must be either right or wrong neglects the circumstances and situations in which torture may be seen as a necessity. While it may be rare for torture to be needed, its rare usefulness doesn’t undermine its value in certain situations. To clarify, the act of harming another human being is wrong, but in some cases the act of harming someone can save many others.
Freedom from discrimination is a basic human right. Human rights means, all human beings are born equal in dignity and rights. These rights are inalienable to all individuals, since they come from nature or from God. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in article seven establish that, “All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.”1 This means that all human beings deserve equal rights and should not be prejudiced by other. These rights are protected in order for anyone to violate them. This is important because this law for human rights promotes the security and well-being of all people in the United States and if these rights are protected, individuals can have a fulfilled life. However, though laws prohibit discrimination, nowadays, this problem remains pervasive in the United States. Race, color, gender, religion, national origin, or sex are subject to unjust discrimination in this country every day of their lives.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, states that everyone has the right to education despite race, religion, color, sex, national origin, ethnic origin, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights, yet millions of children and even adults throughout the world are left uneducated. Seven-hundred and eighty-five million adults worldwide are threatened by illiteracy alone. That translates to one in every five people who lack basic reading skills and two-thirds of this population is made up of women. Poverty, discrimination, and inequality, are key reasons as to why individuals don’t receive a good education or any education at all. Education is a fundamental human right that promotes
With the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), the concept of 'human rights ' has gradually become one of the most commonly accepted universal norms, referred to in United Nations resolutions, national constitutions and regional and international treaties. Even so, human rights violations occur on an almost daily basis in countries around the world. The term seems to be at the forefront of contemporary political discourses, with its meaning at most times remaining unclear. In theory, human rights serve the sole purpose of protecting the inherent dignity of all 'representatives of the human family ' (UDHR 1948) However, there is much disagreement when it comes to theoretically justifying that each human being has rights by virtue
Human rights are universal rights that we are entitled to. It is a freedom that is guaranteed based on the principle of respect for an individual. As mentioned in the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, human rights are a “recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all member of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice, and peace in the world” (Kent, page 80). When asked what our rights are, we tend to get different answers and meanings. Some people recite the rights that they know; but let’s face it, not everyone knows all of the rights that they truly have. The rights we have consist of many things such as the right of having an adequate food supply. The right to