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The War Of The United States

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The armies of the United States of America varied greatly from the beginning of America 's independence in 1775 to the end of the War of 1812 in 1815. Different presidents holding office during this period brought different political views towards managing the army. These views affected the size and capability of the army in war and peace, with varying effectiveness. Effective in this case refers to the ability of the army to perform tasks given to them by the government. Opinions differing from the actions performed by the government provide insight into alternative ideas for the military, which had varying degrees of viability.
During the dawn of the United States of America, Congress led the nation in its affairs. The members
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Congress could not supply the large army that Nationalists wanted; they could only keep 80 soldiers who were sent to guard West Point. With Indians and British outposts in the frontier, Congress created the 1st American Regiment: 700 militiamen that served in periods of two years. They proved to be very ineffective at managing the border and did not make surveyors feel safe in the frontier.
Due to a lack of financial support from taxation, Congress also could not provide payment to soldiers released from duty. This angered many veterans. The ineptitude of Congress resulted in the Newburgh Conspiracy and the Pennsylvania mutiny of 1783, during which veterans demanded Congress pay them for their service. Congress could not call on the army to protect them and they could not pay the veterans, so they were forced to flee Philadelphia to escape a mob of angry veterans.
The final push that resulted in Congress to create an efficient standing army was Shay 's Rebellion, which lasted from 1786 to 1787. Farmers, heavily burdened by taxes and debts, were led by Daniel Shays, a former officer under George Washington, to raid an American armory at Springfield, Massachusetts. With American army stationed at West Point, the armory was guarded by a mere padlock. Congress was forced to rally a militia to end the riots.
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