Secondly, range of similarities and differences are perceived in the sets of rules constraining the language structure of Auslan and English. In comparison to English, sign languages are visual languages, hence it is distinct in modality and word-ordering structure (Damian, 2011). To illustrate, the words of spoken languages are delivered in a fairly linear pattern, both in time and on paper (Bejan, 2001). This linear sentence structure is observed in English, but the same is not demonstrated in Auslan. However, despite this distinction, the order of signs remains of importance to produce meaningful sentences. This is because Auslan conveys many grammatical features found in the English language at phonological, morphological and syntactic levels (Johnston & Schembri, 2007). An individual’s poor English grammar is attributed for sentence fragments. These poorly formed English sentences occur when a sentence lacks a subject, a verb or do not express a complete thought (Schuster, 2006). In the same manner, the wrong ordering of signs will affect the fluency of the language. For instance, the linear English sentence ‘many black cars have disappeared’ will be signed as MANY-BLACK-CAR-DISAPPEAR (Johnston & Schembri, 2007). In this example, it is important that the determiner (MANY) and adjective (BLACK) are situated before the noun (CAR) (Johnston & Schembri, 2007). This is done for the purpose of identifying the noun within the sentence, which subsequently lead to the formation
As a choice, Williams & Bizup opined that the author can choose correctness as an act of “obedience” (p. 10) and that to write correctly, one needs “only a good memory” (p. 10). In writing, correctly Williams and Bizup identified three rules that affect grammatical correctness. However, Williams & Bizup opined, that one had the choice to selectively observe the rules. The first type of rules, discussed, by Williams & Bizup included “real rules” (p. 11). The second type of rules, mentioned, by Williams & Bizup included “social rules” (p. 12), where social rules distinguished standard and nonstandard language. Finally, the last set of rules mentioned,
Because of this, they are less concerned about prescribing rules to be followed since the language is going to change anyway. To descriptivists, it seems rather pointless. However, Garner refutes this stance by describing an earthquake. In the grand scheme of everything, a single earthquake hardly amounts to anything. Millions of other natural disasters happen every day in every continent of the earth. What makes that earthquake special? Compared to the rest of the world, it means nothing. But to the people living in the city where the earthquake struck, it means everything. So it is with grammar. One cannot simply say that good grammar and usage does not matter in the grand scheme of things. It matters to the people who are speaking the language right now! Garner argues that the majority of English-speakers have no concern over where their language is headed but are more concerned with correct usage and proper grammar. Garner also points out another issue which refutes the describers belief that language is one of instinct, not of choice. Garner quotes MIT graduate, Steven Pinker, who relates language to the song of the humpback whale. Pinker criticizes the prescriptivists in their stringent rules that confine individuals to make what he believes to be unnecessary choices because he believes that
Language is a cognitive function that most humans take for granted. The basic means of communication among individuals is through language. Language allows people to communicate with each other, share his or her thoughts and feelings, share ideas and concepts, fears, and affirmations. Different cultures have different languages as well as vocabulary and grammatically components that each one understands. The goal of this paper is to explain what language is and the many methods behind it, the cognitive process of perception and how it
Language can be defined as a means of communication through spoken sounds, written symbols, or hand and body gestures. Subject to this simple definition language is neither human nor animal exclusive, meaning that all living creatures use some form of language to communicate. Humans have created the most advanced system of language. Human language has advanced to include listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and visual representation. These components are known as the six language arts and while they are individual components they are as well interdependent. What you learn about one affects what and how you learn about the others.
“Authority and American Usage,” an interesting essay written by the brilliant and quick-witted David Foster Wallace, presents an argument on different ways of understanding the ever-changing American usage in the English language. Keeping up with the English language in America is like chasing your new, untrained puppy down the street. Tiring and basically impossible to get a hold of. Over the past centuries, the English language has evolved so much, that if you took a person from the 13th century and threw them in the middle of New York City in 2013, it would be as if two different languages were being spoken.
Simon states “some people are pleased to call linguistic evolution was almost always a matter of ignorance prevailing over knowledge” (209). This statement shows the opposing view of the liberal -linguist. On the other hand, the other group of people the opposition of the liberal-linguist mentioned by Simon believe that “there is such thing as Standard English” (208). This makes the works of this article balanced and truthful. As a conservative, Simon wants individuals to preserve the English language and not just go with any fad that may come upon us. Henceforth, Simon wants us to teach ourselves and he stresses training yourself. Though Simon presents favoritism toward what he describes as the minority or the conservatives. “we are here… to arrest unnecessary change” (209). He accurately reveals the two viewpoints regarding good English usage.
Any time there is a change in the social environment; this change either indirectly or directly alters the language. For example, MacNeil argues “as society changes, so does language, and American society has changed enormously in recent decades” (306). He believes that this change has come in the form of different dialects within America, which has a positive affect on the language (311). Similarity, McGrey argues that changes in globalization have let foreign languages within the United States change over time in a
Americans` perspective on language has changed by social or political factors. Three articles, “Do you speak American?” by Robert MacNeil, “Lost in America” by Douglas McGray, and “Why good English is good for you” by John Simon demonstrate each of the author`s idea that changes by the factors are inevitable, Americans should manage them well. Their ideas are based on the fact that Americans, especially societal and political issues, have changed how they think about language.
“Others among you, perhaps fewer in number, will say to yourselves: quite so, there is such a thing as Standard English, or purity of speech, or correctness of expression- something worth safeguarding and fostering; but how the devil is one to accomplish that under the prevailing conditions: in a democratic society full of minorities that have their own dialects or linguistic preferences, and in a world in which television, advertising, and other mass media manage daily to corrupt the language
Learning any language takes time, practice and comprehension to communicate effectively. As children, we develop a list of basic words, their definitions, as well as develop the ability to properly conform simple sentences. We acquire this knowledge simply by focusing on our surroundings. As we grow and embrace our personal surroundings of education, we expand the familiarity and information needed for communication. However, to further enhance our knowledge of correct language, it is necessary to have education centers and schools that teach us the proper guidelines to write and speak effectively. Nonetheless, on the other hand, as we obtain a sense of when, how, and why in certain phrases, at that point, we have the potential to bend the rules a little bit and inaccurately expand our horizons of communication. This is when doublespeak originates and has the ability to destroy the proper function of language.
Language is defined as a system of communication consisting of sounds, words, and grammar (Press, 2016).
George Orwell states that, “our civilization is decadent and our language…must inevitably share in the general collapse” (Orwell 2000, 1), when he argues for prescriptivism (though toned down from what was taught and accepted in his day). While Garner posits that, “describers, meanwhile, remind us that linguistic change is a fact of life – and conclude that it’s therefore not worth opposing” (Garner, Making Peace in the Language Wars 2008, 272). When David Foster Wallace discusses descriptivism, he makes a historical reference to, “Philip Gove’s now classic introduction to Webster’s Third [which] outlines this type of Descriptivism’s five basic edicts: ‘1 – Language changes constantly; 2 – change is normal; 3 – spoken language is the language; 4 – correctness rests upon usage; 5 – All usage is relative.’” (Wallace 2005, 83). Wallace himself argues against most of these edicts, proving himself to uphold his snootitude. Bryan A. Garner creates a list similar to that of Gove’s, while addressing the argument that “learning grammar may seem like an exercise in pedantry,” which is a point argued by many descriptivists:
There is often confusion between what is prescriptively correct under the rules of standard English grammar within different varieties, which results in various options for classroom grammar teaching for second language learners.
Although, there is no agreed definition of language among linguists, but we can say that language is the most sophisticated way of communication between any two human beings and far more complex than any other system of communication. The ability of acquiring and using languages is one of the properties that differs us as human beings from other species.