Theological Debate in the Bible

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Few subjects in the Bible have been subjected to as much theological debate as the issue of God’s sovereignty and human responsibility. Theologians on both sides of the issue have attempted to answer the age old question of whether God chooses who will be “saved” or if the responsibility falls to man to determine the outcome of their eternal soul. As found in the theories of John Calvin and Joseph Arminius, each theologian attempted to prove their viewpoint on predestination, free-will, and exactly who in humanity will go to an eternal paradise. In this paper, the evidence will be presented from both sides of the debate leaving the reader to draw their own conclusions.
The foundation of the debate originates from the Biblical passages found in the book of Romans, chapters nine through eleven. However, for the purposes of this paper, the focus will be primarily on Romans chapter nine. In this section of his epistle, the Apostle Paul wrote of his deep concern for Israel, the seven privileges God gave to Israel, the difference between Jews who naturally descended from Abraham and Jews who are his spiritual seed, the fact that God’s mercy is controlled by his sovereign will, that the Old Testament prophets predicted the spiritual blindness of Israel, and God’s mercy being extended to the Gentiles. (King James Version Bible, Romans 9:1-33)
Professor Thomas Schreiner stated that, “Paul’s words about predestination in these chapters have also precipitated a great deal of
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