Theories Of Relational Aggression

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Relational aggression (RA) is defined as nonphysical behaviors that aim to deliberately cause harm to another individual by destroying relationships, harming social status or self-esteem, or public embarrassment (Crick, Werner, Casas, O’Brien, Nelson, Grotpeter, & Markon, 1999). Examples include behaviors such as purposely ignoring a peer, spreading rumors, creating undesirable gossip, and excluding a peer from group activities, (Crick, 1996; Crick & Grotpeter, 1995; Crick, Ostrov, & Werner, 2006). RA can occur as early as preschool years, and plays a huge role in the interactions among this population with behaviors such as covering one’s ears as a sign of ignoring another peer (Bonica, Arnold, Fisher, Zeljo, & Yershova, 2003; Crick et al., …show more content…

For example, RA is associated with negative peer associations, physical aggression, lack of behaviors that aim to help others, and delinquency (Crick et al., 2006; Ostrov, Woods, Jansen, Casas, & Crick, 2004). Relational aggression has also been shown to be associated with multiple social regulation problems, including peer rejection, peer victimization, and adjustment problems (Crick et al., 2006). Also, victims of relational aggression experience wide-ranging negative psychosocial effects such as isolation, depressive symptoms, low self‐esteem, and peer rejection (Bresin & Robinson, 2013; Crick & Bigbee, 1998; Cullerton‐Sen & Crick, 2005; Prinstein, Boergers, & Vernberg, …show more content…

al., 2012; Zhang, Roberts, Liu, Meng, Tang, Sun, & Yu, 2012). Trait anger has even been positively correlated with financial risk taking and lower motor control (Bresin & Robinson, 2013; Gambetti & Giusberti, 2014). In a recent study conducted by Agaoglu & Esen (2014), results showed that mostly when the wellness level of the students is increased, the trait anger levels are decreased. Research has also shown that implementing health-promoting anger managing behaviors into lifestyles could decrease the harmful effects of inflammatory responses in postmenopausal women (Gross, Groer, & Thomas,

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