Theory and the Nursing Process
Kenneth L. Harris
University of Phoenix
Community and Family Nursing
June 22, 2015
Kimberly Lewis RN, MSN-Ed
Theory and the Nursing Process The theoretical basis for public and community nurses began in the nineteenth century with Florence Nightingale. Nightingale believed in the prevention and surveillance of diseases. She further believed that a disease was more prevalent in poor environments. She proved that good health was more prevalent with a good environment for instance providing adequate ventilation, clean water, warmth, light, and cleanliness during the Crimean War (Allender, Rector, & Warner, 2014).
The public and community health nurse can affect change in behavior by …show more content…
The activities include physical and occupational therapy, nutrition counseling, and case management ("Community Health Nursing," 2013).
The two theories the Nightingale and the Knowles are an example of the integration of the nursing and education discipline to promote a health community and protect the population from illness, communicable diseases, injury, and death. The challenges are great but obtainable.
The use of the survey by the community and public health nurses to identify problems and develop a plan of action. The development of education programs by employing the Knowles principles to reach out to the adult learner.
The mission of community and public health nursing is related back to the work of Florence Nightingale. Her observation that good environment leads to good health and bad environment leads to bad health.
Allender, J. A., Rector, C., & Warner, K. D. (2014). Community and public health nursing (8 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins.
Beagley, L. (2011, October). Educating Patients: Understanding Barriers, Learning Styles, and Teaching Techniques. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, 26, 331-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jopan.2011.06.002
Martin, D., & Yurkovich, E. (2014). “Close-Knit” Defines a Healthy Native American Indian Family. Journal of Family Nursing, 20(51-72).
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“Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles” (ICN 2010)
quality of patient care, and can be implemented in practice, to provide solutions to nursing
Community health nursing is a vocation; striving to improve the health of the community by promoting, stabilizing and protecting the health of individuals, families and identified aggregates. We are able to have the furthest reach when we can isolate a specific deficit of an aggregate through assessment and subsequently the development of a community support program. Community support programs promote health, access to services and self-advocacy.
Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2012). Public health nursing: Population-centered health care in the community (8th ed.). Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby Elsev
Public health nurses should be competent in analyzing community health problems classified in the community nursing diagnoses and established priorities accordingly, set goals and objectives, and identified intervention actions that will be able to accomplish these objectives. Each problem identified as part of the assessment process must be ranked by highest priority to determine its
In an effort to promote the health needs within a community, a successful community health nurse (CHN) must focus on the entire population. In order to accomplish this task, the CHN utilizes a scientific approach to determine the priority population focused health needs for the community. According to Nies & McEwen (2011), a population focus involving an assessment of the community is a primary tool utilized in order to develop planning, interventions, and evaluations for the community at large. The purpose of this paper is to determine a priority
Nies, M. A., & McEwen, M. (2015). Community/Public health nursing: Promoting the health of populations (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders/Elsevier.
Community health nurses find out information about the community’s involvement and knowledge. They use their clinical understanding and experience to bring information to the community’s about different health issues in that area. For example if HIV was increasing in their area they would collect the numbers and data and bring it to the attention of other health care agencies to bring
Nurses take on educator roles both in educating the public on their health and as educators in clinical practice and academic settings. As a public educator, nurses teach and counsel patients and families to enhance health and well-being. Patient and family health education is an important step in preventing disease. In order to be able to properly educate their clients on health promotion and well-being, nurses must first fully understand “health”. Nurses do not view health as “the absence of illness” but “define health as the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment in which they live.” (CARNA, 2005, p.2). Nurses hold a holistic view of the person and health and address health within the context of a person’s wholeness, including biological, emotional, psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual dimensions. Incorporating these ideas, nurses use the determinants of health as a way of dealing with and achieving health for an individual. Nurses recognize the broad determinants of health as income & social status, education, culture, physical environments, gender, health services, social support networks, employment & working conditions, health services, personal health practices, and biology & genetic endowment.
Public health nurses "play a strategic role in helping reduce environmental and lifestyle-related health hazards by promoting a positive lifestyle, including exercise, stress management, accident prevention, weight maintenance, and nutrition education that is sensitive to socio-economic status and cultural beliefs” ("Obesity's Impact on Public Health Nursing," n.d.). Nurses can help by involving themselves in policy development by being active participants in the policy process as it closely resembles the nursing process. Through community assessments, public health nurses can determine health factors by assessing the socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral factors of the population to determine interventions
Nursing cannot exist without theory, and the concepts that define those principles. Every intervention a nurse organizes is based off of theory, and revolves directly around the patient. The current practice used as a Registered Nurse in the emergency room setting is similar, but less complicated than that of an Advanced Practice Nurse Practitioner.
Public health nursing focus on a community that the nurse identifies the health issues facing that population and try to figure out ways to find a solution to those health problems for the community 's population. Although areas in public health such as having access and cost still pose a great problem, community based care has made an impact on the contemporary practice of nursing. One of the leaders of public health nursing was Lilian D. Wald. Lilian Wald was a nurse, social reformer, and advocate that made a significant impact on public health services. Dieckmann (2015), explains that she convinced American Red Cross to initiate health nursing services across the country. Eventually, this progressed into local governments to develop public health nursing within the counties and their health departments (Dieckmann, 2015). All these developments then supported a service called Town and Country Nursing that developed a framework of home nursing care in the public area and provided instructions to the community on hygiene and sanitation (Dieckmann, 2015). Overall, Lilian Wald made a significant influence on numerous services that turned into providing effective care for the community. These services have influence a great deal in public health nursing within local areas around the country.
For example, community education about current health issues is one of the functions of primary health care, so a registered nurse can assume the role of an educator and educate the community about the current threat. Community education is one of the most important aspects of nursing because their code of ethics requires them to keep the community accurately informed on health related issues (Australian Nursing & Midwifery Council [ANMC], 2006). Furthermore, the education informs community about prevention methods because primary health care supports the active participation of patients for both individual and public health.