Transition Metals: Chromium

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Chromium has an atomic number of 24, and is considered to be a transition metal.
It has an atomic mass of 51.996 amu, a melting point of 1907 degrees Celsius (2180 K, 3465 degrees Fahrenheit), and a boiling point of 2671 degrees Celsius (2944 K, 4840 degrees Fahrenheit). This element is the first element within group 6. The ways in which interactions with light occur along its surface allow for it to be considered lustrous. In addition, it is a silvery metallic that is hard yet brittle. Its crystalline structure consists of a body-centered cube. Its density is 7.19 g/cm3 at 20 degrees Celsius. Its electron configuration is 2-8-13-1. Its spdf configuration is 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 3d^2 4s^2. It has electrons located in 4 energy levels. The most common ions chromium forms are Cr2+, Cr3+, and Cr6+. Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, French scientist, obtained samples of crocoite ore in 1797. He discovered that he could isolate metallic chromium by heating its oxide in a charcoal oven, allowing for him to become the discoverer of the element. Vauuquelin was also able to identify remnants of chromium in gemstones, such as emerald or ruby. Moreover, he was able to produce chromium trioxide by amalgamating crocoite and hydrochloric acid. During the 1800s, chromium was used as a constituent piece of paints and in tanning salts. Chromium is also known for its luster when polished. It is used in plumbing fixtures, furniture parts and many other items. Initially, crocoite from
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