Trauma And The Effects On Neural Development

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According to Merriam-Webster (web dictionary), trauma is an unpleasant or difficult experience that causes a disordered psychic, mental, behavioral, and emotional problem. Wright (2011), explains that when children experienced trauma, they no longer perceive that our world as safe, and, the effects of trauma can be mild, moderate, or, severe depending on the child’s personality, culture, spiritual beliefs, or, the meanings they give to the event itself (p. 190-191). Trauma and the Effects on Neural Development In Bremner’s (2007) article, he states that “Traumatic stress has a broad range of effects on brain function and structure, as well as on neuropsychological components of memory” (p. 455). Specifically, the areas of the brain that are affected by a trauma response include the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and, the neurochemical systems. Therefore, neurologically speaking, when trauma is experienced, it changes how the brain transmits, interprets the event and stores the information. In addition, Broderick (2015), states that physiological and neuropsychological changes are also evident in children who have experienced risk. For example, DRD4 indicates higher levels of aggression, 5-HTT indicates anxiety and depression, the child can experience weak verbal, problem solving skills, and, become unable to understand the consequences, of their reactions to feeling at risk (p. 276). Factors That Lead to Developmental Delays According to Broderick (2015), one

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